Your Server stinks!

You must upgrade it!

Working with old software versions is a common problem. Therefore server software and application upgrades are a necessity. But servers and applications upgrades are often a nightmare. This page gives You a rescue! You'll find useful tables with releases, compatibility matrix, upgrade path, suggestions, ... and links!

Does Your server stink? Check it with the help of the following tables!

Never more without (Relational DB):

SQLite MySQL PostgreSQL

Oracle RDBMS

SQL Server DB2 Informix

NoSQL: Hadoop  

Never more without (OS):
Unix: Solaris HP-UX True64 AIX MAC OS X
Linux: Debian Ubuntu Red Hat Suse
Microsoft: Windows
Mobile: iOS Android MS Phone Kindle ...
Hypervisors: VMware VirtualBox Xen OVM KVM
Cloud (AWS vSphere XenCloud ...)

Never more without (Web):
Web Servers Application Servers CMS

ERP: Oracle eBS JD Edwards SAP BAAN

Pentaho Asterisk xCALLY Zabbix Grafana

Power Links:
OS: IBM Sun HP Red Hat SUSE Tools: Symantec
DB: Oracle (Doc Metalink) SQLite MySQL PostgreSQL
AS: Oracle AS Apache JBoss
Languages: Cobol Microfocus Business Object
Genealogy: Unix Linux Win. Browsers Lang. (Col.)
Wikipedia: Unix Windows ... Other: Linux Map
Security: NVD by NIST CVE

From Meo's White Papers:
C'era una volta Oracle Oracle JDBC Drivers
Oracle Application Server 10g Oracle EBS
MySQL MySQL 4 Oracle DBAs
"Hello world!"... ditelo coi fiori
La rivoluzione del Software Libero
Unix: Stele di Rosetta Linux RH OEL AIX HP-UX Solaris

by IMPORTANT: see Copyright Notice

Il software e' come il pesce: dopo un poco puzza... devi aggiornarlo!

In questa pagina ho raccolto le versioni dei sistemi operativi, database ed ambienti su cui tipicamente lavoro e che debbo tenere aggiornati. I commenti sono anche in inglese perche' la stragrande maggioranza delle sorgenti di informazione dirette sono in inglese... compreso questo documento!

Il tuo server puzza? Controllalo con l'aiuto delle tabelle seguenti!


Only a few know... but SQLite is the most used Relational Database.
SQlite can be easly embedded in applications written in all languages and does not have any management process or task.
It's embedded in browsers (eg. Firefox, Chrome, ...), in Mobile OS (iOS, Android, Windows Phone, BlackBerry, ...), 
in OS (Mac OS X, Solaris, ...), ... an impressive list is reported here:
(Sources: Releases Timeline Wikipedia)
Last release
Date (from)
Date (last)
3.36Production Easier EXPLAIN PLAN 3.36.02021-062021-06
3.35Production Builtin math functions, ALTER TABLE DROP COLUMN, generalized UPSERT. 3.35.52021-032021-04
3.34Production Recursive CTE with two or more terms 3.34.12020-122021-01
3.33ProductionUPDATE FROM 3.33.02020-082020-08
3.32Productioniif() 3.32.32020-052020-06
3.31ProductionGenerated columns 3.31.12020-012020-01
3.30ProductionNULL [FIRST|LAST] in ORDER BY 3.30.12019-102019-10
3.29Productionsqlite_dbdata virtual table 3.29.02019-072019-07
3.28ProductionEnhanced window functions (EXCLUDE, GROUP frames, PRECEDING and FOLLOWING) 3.28.02019-042019-04
3.27ProductionVACUUM INTO 3.27.22019-022019-02
3.26ProductionOptimized UPDATES 3.26.02018-122018-12
3.25ProductionWindow functions 3.25.32018-092018-11
3.24ProductionUPSERT, improved format of the EXPLAIN QUERY PLAN 3.24.02018-062018-06
3.23ProductionTRUE and FALSE constants, query optimizer enhancements 3.23.12018-042018-04
3.22ProductionZip virtual table, trace all statement in triggers 3.22.02018-012018-01
3.21ProductionOptimizations 3.21.02017-102017-10
3.20ProductionNew pointer passing interface, enhancements to the command-line shell 3.20.12017-082017-08
3.19Production Flattening optimization 3.19.32017-052017-06
3.18Production LIKE optimization, PRAGMA optimize 3.18.22017-032017-06
3.17ProductionR-Tree Performance 3.17.02017-022017-02
3.16ProductionPerformance, experimental support fof PRAGMA functions 3.16.22017-012017-01
3.15Productionrow values, .check and .testcase commands 3.15.22016-102016-11
3.14ProductionWITHOUT ROWID virtual tables 3.14.22016-082016-09
3.13ProductionPostpone TEMP I/O, new options 3.13.02016-052016-05
3.12ProductionParser and Optimizer enhancements 3.12.22016-032016-04
3.11ProductionMany micro-optimizations, autoexplain in shell 3.11.12016-022016-03
3.10ProductionFixes, performance optimizations. LIKE, REGEXP on virtual tables. 3.10.22016-012016-02
3.9Production JSON1 extension, indexes on expression, table functions in FROM, eponymous virtual tables 3.9.32015-102016-04
3.8Production NGQP (Next Generation Query Planner) which uses N3 (N Nearest Neighbors) instead of NN (Nearest Neighbor)
(3.8.1) STAT4 (3.8.3 2014-08-15) .fullschema command, readfile() and writefile() functions
3.7Production WAL (write-ahead logging) with better concurrency 3.7.172010-072013-05
3.6ProductionChanges in VFS (Virtual File System) interface
3.5ProductionChanges in the OS interface 3.5.92007-102008-05
3.4ProductionIncremental BLOB I/O, Incremental vacuum, full-text search extensions 3.4.22007-062007-08
3.3Production CHECK constraints, IF [NOT] EXISTS clause, DESC indices, optional READ UNCOMMITTED isolation 3.3.172006-012007-04
3.2ProductionADD COLUMN 3.2.82005-032005-12
3.1Production Autovacuum, CURRENT_TIME, CURRENT_DATE, CURRENT_TIMESTAMP, RENAME TABLE, LIKE... ESCAPE, ... 3.1.62005-022005-03
3.0ProductionAtomic commits, BLOB, UTF-8, 64-bit rowid, ... 3.0.82004-092004-10
2.xProductionPublic domain release. B-tree 2.8.172001-092005-12
1.0ProductionFirst release based on gdbm (hash). Dynamic typing 1.0.322000-082001-07
Alpha 2000-052000-08

Upgrading is generally painless. The database is binary compatible in most upgrades.


MySQL is the most known Open Source RDBMS.
It's light but powerful and fast. Probably the best for web applications.

MySQL support and additional tools are available with a subscription (NOV 2010): Prices
(Standard,Enterprise,Cluster with <=4 socket / >4 socket: 2k$, 5k, 10k / 4k, 10k, 20k$)
(Sources: Release notes 8.0, 5.7; Repositories, Download, Platforms, Support, Wikipedia)
Last release
Date (from)
Date (to)
MySQL 8.0 Production Roles, password history, InnoDB tables for the data dictionary, invisible indexes, descending indexes, window functions (OVER), common table expression (WITH), expressions in column default. Limited backward compatibity. (8.0.13 2018-10): password_require_current. (8.0.14 2019-01): dual password, requires mysql_upgrade! innodb_parallel_read_threads. (8.0.15 2019-02): ipv6 group replication support. (8.0.16 2019-04): automatic mysql_upgrade, group replication autorejoin. 8.0.262018-042023-04 PS
2026-04 ES
MySQL 5.7 Production InnoDB enhancements (temporary tablespace, DDL performance, spatial data types, in-place ALTER TABLE resize, native partitioning, page compression, ...); native support for JSON datatype; better syslog logging; Control-C does not quit mysql client; security enhancements; replication enhancements (eg. multi master, enhanched GTID); performance_schema: metadata_locks, threads; SYS schema.
(5.7.17 2016-12): Group Replication and, with MySQL Router 2.1.3 (2017-04) InnoDB Cluster. (5.7.18 2017-04): latest to support RH 5 and Ubuntu 12.04, on Solaris 11 requires upd. 3. (5.7.23 2018-07): requires mysql_upgrade! InnoDB CVE fixes, caching_sha2_password support (client can connect to 8.0). (5.7.26 2019-04): latest to support SUSE 11.
5.7.352015-102020-10 PS
2023-10 ES
MySQL 5.6Production Host Cache infos; Full text search on InnoDB; Fractional Seconds; ignore-db-dir; Performance and scalability (condition pushdown to engine, better statistics for InnoDB, persistence on restart, ...); INFORMATION_SCHEMA (OPTIMIZER_TRACE, INNODB_METRICS, INNODB_SYS_TABLES, ...); explicit partition selection; NoSQL memcached API; Replication enhancements (multithreaded slaves, crash safe slaves, checksums, server UUIDs, delaying replicas); PERFORMANCE_SCHEMA enhancements; ...
(5.6.36 2017-04): latest to support RH 5 and Ubuntu 12.04.
5.6.512013-022018-01 PS
2021-01 ES
MySQL 5.5ProductionSemi-synchronous replication, Performance Schema, SIGNAL/RESIGNAL, LOAD XML, InnoDB 1.1 as default engine, INFORMATION_SCHEMA (INNODB_TRX, INNODB_BUFFER_POOL_STATS, ...), Interface: Plugin->Builtin 5.5.622010-122015-12 PS
2018-12 ES
MySQL 5.4BetaInno DB multiprocessor optimizations (Sun Solaris), Plugin interface5.4.1
MySQL 6.0AlphaFalcon Storage Engine, Referential integrity, Unicode6.0.11
MySQL 5.1ProductionROW and MIXED replication, partitioning, loggin on tables, scheduler, table compression, Cluster enhancements. (5.1.7) INFORMATION_SCHEMA.PROCESSLIST5.1.732008-112013-12
MySQL 5.0ProductionCatalog (INFORMATION_SCHEMA), Views, Archive and Federated Engines, Stored Routines and triggers, ANSI SQL:20035.0.962005-102011-12
MySQL 4.1ProductionStronger login security, Subqueries, Data Clustering, NDB Engine4.1.22 2004-102009-12
MySQL 4.0ProductionUnion, savepoint (InnoDB)4.0.272003-032008-09
MySQL 3.23ProductionMyISAM Engine (3.23.0), Asynchronous Replication (3.23.15), FULLTEXT indexes (3.23.23), InnoDB Engine (3.23.34) with transaction support and (3.23.44) foreign keys 3.23.58 2001-012006-12
MySQL 3.22Beta1998
MySQL 3.21Production1998
MySQL 3.20ProductionAvailable also on Windows1997
MySQL 3.19Production1996
InternalAlphaFirst internal release based on ISAM mSQL engine (same API)1995
MySQL updates are performed quarterly (they generally occurr few day later the Oracle PSU/RU release schedule: last upgrade: 2021-07-20, planned next upgrade: 2021-10-18). MySQL upgrades are generally smooth and fast! Major release changes requires mysql_upgrade while minor upgrades require only a restart. Take care of old PHP libraries (the authentication protocol changed in 4.1 version) and of deprecated parameters.

SUN acquired MySQL on 2008-02, Oracle acquired SUN on 2009-04.
Important MySQL forks are: Percona Server binary data compatible with MySQL, same MySQL releases (last releases: 8.0.13-3, 5.7.24-27, 5.6.42-84.2, 5.5.62-38.14, 5.1.73-14.12, 5.0.92-b23), Addons: powerful XtraDB Storage Engine, intrumentation and tools; and MariaDB initially binary data compatible with MySQL but now the releases are different.
WebScaleSQL was a branch from MySQL 5.6 community for large scale environments but now it seems abandoned (last commit 2015-12).

MySQL does not support obsolete OS: (2018-05) Debian 7; (2018-04) Windows 8; (2017-12) Fedora 25; (2017-04) RHEL 5.x, Ubuntu 12.4; (2016-06) Windows 7, Windows Server 2008; ... For EOL OS binaries are not longer published (eg. RHEL 5.x latest MySQL versions are 5.7.18, 5.6.36, 5.5.55).

AWS offers on RDS both MySQL and Aurora MySQL which is a cloud optimized MySQL compatible DB (Aurora MySQL 1.x is compatible with MySQL 5.6 while Aurora MySQL 2.x is compatible with MySQL 5.7. Latest versions are 1.20.0 and 2.05).


MariaDB was created in 2009 by Michael "Monty" Widenius, one of MySQL founders, created MariaDB as soon as MySQL was acquired by Oracle Corp.
MariaDB used the same MySQL versioning initially then they changed approach forking 5.5 release,
adding new features and backporting intresting MySQL features. MariaDB supports more Engines than MySQL.
(Sources: Releases, MySQL compatibility)
Last release
Date (from)
Date (last)
Date (to)
10.6 Production Ignoring indexes, sys schemata, ... Desupport: TokuDB, CassandraSE, SYS_DATAFILES 10.6.32021-072021-062021-06
10.5 Production INSERT/REPLACE... RETURNING, ALTER TABLE... RENAME, S3 Engine, ColumnStore (Beta), mariadb commands (symlinked with mysql), ... 10.5.112020-062020-082025-06Suggested
10.4 Production New authentication, mysql.global_priv table, optimizer trace, instant DROP COLUMN, Galera 4, ... InnoDB fork (for all releases) 10.4.202019-062020-082024-06Suggested
10.3 Production Based on MariaDB 10.2, diverges from MySQL. Sequences, row type for stored routines, delete from subquery, proxy protocol, Oracle's PL/SQL language compatibility mode, MyRocks and Spider Engines, invisible columns, ... (10.3.9 2018-08): InnoDB 5.7.23, CVE fixes 10.3.302018-052020-082023-05
(5y after GA)
10.2 Production Based on MariaDB 10.1 with backported features from MySQL 5.6 and 5.7. New features: window functions (OVER), common table expression (WITH), DECIMAL(38), multiple triggers, JSON and GeoJSON functions support, CHECK constraints, InnoDB 5.7.18 (but shows 5.7.14), expressions in column default. (10.2.13 2018-02): InnoDB 5.7.21, fixed a WSREP serius bug (10.2.17 2018-08): InnoDB 5.7.23, CVE fixes 10.2.392017-052020-082022-05Suggested
10.1ProductionBased on MariaDB 10.0 with backported features from MySQL 5.6 and 5.7. New features: Galera; Table/Tablespace/Log Encryption, AWS Key Management Service; InnoDB compression; GIS 10.1.482015-102020-082020-10
10.0ProductionBased on MariaDB 5.5 with backported features from MySQL 5.6. New features: Roles, Audit Plugin, TokuDB Engine, Parallel Replication, Multi source Replication, GTID (NB different from MySQL), Information and Performance schemata as MySQL 5.6. 10.0.382014-032019-012019-03
5.5ProductionBased on MySQL 5.5 and MariaDB 5.3. Performance schema. 5.5.682012-042020-052020-04
5.3ProductionBased on MariaDB 5.2, some features backported from MySQL 6.0. Better subquery performances. 5.3.122012-022013-012017-03
5.2ProductionBased on MariaDB 5.1. New features: virtual columns, pluggable authentication. 5.2.142010-112013-012015-11
5.1ProductionBased on the corresponding version of MySQL with some added features: Aria Engine, XtraDB Engine, microseconds in processlist 5.1.672010-022013-012015-02

AWS offers MariaDB (10.0, 10.1, 10.2 and 10.3) on RDS.

MySQL JDBC Support (Connector/J)
(Sources: Connector/J 8.0 Connectors)

MySQL Server
Java RTE
Date (from)
Last release
Last release date
Connector/J 8.0 5.5, 5.6, 5.7, 8.0 JDBC 4.2 API, X DevAPI. 1.8 2018-048.0.172019-07 Suggested
Connector/J 5.1 4.1, 5.0, 5.1, 5.4, 5.5, 5.6, 5.7 JDBC 3.0, JDBC 4.0. Driver Manager autoregistration, NCHAR, NVARCHAR, NCLOB, JDBC-4.0 XML. (5.1.21) Java 1.7 support, JDBC 4.1 better support. (5.1.37) JDBC 4.2 better support. (5.1.46) MySQL 8.0 support. 1.4, 1.5, 1.6, 1.7, 1.8 2007-045.1.482019-07 Suggested
Connector/J 5.0 4.1, 5.0 JDBC 3.0. Full support for MySQL 5.0 features (XA support) 1.3, 1.4, 1.5, 1.6 2005-125.0.82007-10 Incompatibilities with 5.6
Connector/J 3.1 4.1, 5.0 JDBC 3.0. Almost all MySQL 5.0 features supported (no XA transactions) 1.2, 1.3, 1.4, 1.5, 1.6 2004-023.1.142006-10
Connector/J 3.0 3.x, 4.1 JDBC 3.0 1.2, 1.3, 1.4, 1.5, 1.6 2002-073.0.172005-06 BAD (security problems)
Connector/J 2.0 3.x JDK 1.2, JDK 2.0 2000-042.0.142002-05
Connector/J 1 3.x JDK 1.1 1998-051.2b1999-07

They are all type 4 (100% pure java) JDBC drivers. MariaDB mantaines different LGPL MariaDB Connector/J drivers.


phpMyAdmin is the most known and used administration tool for MySQL.
Open Source, powerful, available on 72 languages, ... rated as "Best Tool or Utility for SysAdmins"
(Sources: News, Downloads page, Wikipedia)
Last release
Date (from)
Date (last)
5.1 Production Requirements: PHP 7.1, MySQL 5.5+. Improvements to linking to documentation for both MySQL and MariaDB. Preview SQL. ALTER ONLINE, ... 5.1.12021-022021-06
5.0 Production Requirements: PHP 7.1, MySQL 5.5+. Enable columns names by default for CSV exports (at last ;-) 5.0.42019-122020-10
4.9 Production LTS to support PHP 5.5-7.0 4.9.72019-062020-10
4.8 Production Requirements: same as previuous release. 4.8.52018-042019-01
4.7 Production Requirements: PHP 5.5 to 7.1, MySQL 5.5+ (4.7.1): support for 8.0 collations 4.7.92017-032017-12
4.6 Production Requirements: PHP 5.5 to 7.0, MySQL 5.5+ 4.6.62016-032017-01
4.5 Production Requirements: PHP 5.5 to 7.0, MySQL 5.5+
4.4 Production Requirements: PHP 5.3.7 to 7.0, MySQL 5.5+
4.3ProductionSQL preview, Drag&Drop import, zeroconf PMA tables, support for both old and new chart formats, better performance with thousands databases, ... Desupport: MySQL < 5.5
4.2ProductionExport and Import enhancements, Edit privilege with sub-menus, ... Requirements: PHP 5.3+, MySQL 5.5+ (2014-12 last release
4.1ProductionFractional seconds, new DB in nav tree, HTLM5 enhancements, better table browser, ... Requirements: PHP 5.3+, MySQL 5.5+
4.0ProductionTree view of schemas, removed HTML frames, changed chart format. LTS to support PHP 5.2-5.4.
Requirements: PHP 5.2+ (does not support PHP 5.5+), MySQL 5.0+
3ProductionEVENT, TRIGGER support (3.4) Ajax interface, Charts (3.5) Better Ajax interface
Requirements: PHP 5.2+, MySQL 5.0+
2ProductionMany layout changes, new functionalities. (2.4 2003-02): MySQL 4 privileges (2.6 2004-09): MySQL 4.1 support (2.11 2007-08): MySQL 5.0 support for trigger, procedures, and functions
Requirements: PHP 4.2, MySQL 3.23.32+
1ProductionPHP 3 1.3.11998-091998-12

MySQL phpMyAdmin Compatibility Matrix

MySQL 5.1 5.0 4.9 4.8 4.7 4.6 4.5 4.4 4.3 4.2 4.1 4.0 3.x 2.6-2.9 2.4-2.5 2.0-2.3 1
8.0 Yes Partial
5.7 Yes Yes Yes Yes Partial Partial
5.6 Yes Yes Yes Yes Partial Partial
5.5 Yes Yes Yes Yes Partial Partial
5.1 No No No No Yes Yes Partial
5.0 No No No No Yes Yes Partial
4.1 No No No No No Yes Yes Partial
4.0 No No No No No Yes Yes Yes Partial
3.x No No No No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

MySQL and phpMyAdmin have a lot of functionalities... things are not as simple as the previous matrix seems to suggest.

Galera Cluster for MySQL

Galera is an Open Source Cluster for MySQL based on multi-master synchronous replication.
Galera Cluster for MySQL is available for both Oracle MySQL Community (up to 5.7), MariaDB, and Percona.
(Sources: Galera Cluster, Git Hub Launchpad )
Last release
Date (from)
Date (last)
4 Production Huge transaction support with streaming replication, new system tables to help monitoring, backup locks, ... NB: MariaDB 10.4 only Planned: non blocking DDL, ...
(2020-05): available on MySQL 8.0.19 too
3Production Support for MySQL 5.6, Wan optimizations, MySQL 5.6 GTID support, Async compatibility, new write set key format; (2017-02) MySQL 5.7 support (5.7.17). Desupport: MySQL 5.1. (2018-12 25.3.25): last for MySQL 5.5 (5.5.62) 3-25.3.292013-112020-01Suggested
2 Production Incremental state transfer (IST). Schema upgrades: Total Order Isolation (TOI) or Rolling Schema Upgrade (RSU). 2-25.2.92012-102014-03
1 Production Foreign keys. Writeset cache. 1.2011-102012-02
0 Production (0.7): DDL Support. (0.8): SST Scripts. 0.8.220092011-09


Sysbench is the de-facto standard for MySQL benchmarks.
(Sources: GitHub )
Last release
Date (from)
Date (last)
1.0ProductionOfficial release refactoring updates since 4.12: Lua scripting, new command line sintax, better scalability and internal performances, error hooks, report hooks, latency histograms, custom commands, ... 1.0.202017-022020-04Suggested
0.5ProductionNot an official release... Lua scripting; --mysql-ignore-errors option 20062017-02
0.4ProductionMany improvments. Oracle Driver. (0.4.12 2016): broadly adopted by linux distros 0.4.122005-072017-02
0.3Old 2005-012005
OldDeveloped as an internal tool 20042004


PostgreSQL is a powerful Open Source Object/Relational Database Management System.
It has more than 15 years of active development and a proven architecture
that has earned it a strong reputation for reliability, data integrity, and correctness.
It runs on all major operating systems.
(Source: Official Site Versioning Features )
Last release
Date (from)
Date (to)
PostgreSQL 14 Beta 14.beta-22021-062021-06
PostgreSQL 13 Production Better performance with aggregates or partitioning, parallel VACUUM for indexes, space saving in indexes, new monitoring views, trusted extensions, ... (13.1 2020-11): CVE-2020-25695 fix 13.32020-092025-11Suggested
PostgreSQL 12 Production Performance improvements on partitioning, decreased WAL usage for indexes, JSON path expressions, stored generated columns, ... Incompatibilites: replication parameters in postgres.conf. (12.5 2020-11): CVE-2020-25695 fix 12.72019-102024-11Suggested
PostgreSQL 11 Production Improvements to partitioning (by hash, better query pruning, full referential constraint support, upsert, row move, ...), transaction control in PL/pgSQL, SQL stored procedures, enhanched parallelism, full SQL:2011 standard support for window functions, JIT compilation, ... quit and exit in psql! (11.4 2019-06): CVE-2019-10164 fix (11.10 2020-11): CVE-2020-25695 fix 11.122018-102023-11Suggested
PostgreSQL 10 Production Built-in Logical Replication, native Table Partitioning, enhanched Query Parallelism, quorum commit on Synchronous Replication. Driver updates: SCRAM-SHA-256 Authentication, Multi-host failover, Read-only/Read-Write connections. Incompatibilites: directory changes, wal functions renamed, version numbering. Desupport: pg_dump for DB older than 8.0 (10.3 2018-03): CVE-2018-1058 fix (10.9 2019-06): CVE-2019-10164 fix (10.15 2020-11): CVE-2020-25695 fix 10.172017-102022-11Suggested
PostgreSQL 9.6 Production Parallel sequential scans, joins and aggregates; Elimination old data autovacuuming; Synchronous replication on multiple standby servers; Full-text search for phrases; Support for remote joins, sorts, and updates in postgres_fdw; Better multi-core scalability. (9.6.1 2016-10) many bug fixes. Incompatible change: pg_stat_activity. (9.6.8 2018-03): CVE-2018-1058 fix (9.6.20 2020-11): CVE-2020-25695 fix 9.6.222016-092021-11
PostgreSQL 9.5 Production INSERT ON CONFLICT UPDATE (UPSERT), Grouping Sets, CUBE and ROLLUP analytic operations, Row-Level Security, better multi-core and large memory scalability. Desupport: PostGIS 2.1. (9.5.2 2016-03): fixed a bug affecting 9.5 only (text indexes optimization). (9.5.12 2018-03): CVE-2018-1058 fix (9.5.24 2020-11): CVE-2020-25695 fix 9.5.252016-012021-02
PostgreSQL 9.4Production Native JSON support; new API for managing replication streams; logical WAL decoding; perfomance improvements on GIN indexes; concurrently updatable materialized views; ALTER SYSTEM (; pg_stat_archiver; security: SSL ECDH key exchange, log_connections shows SSL usage. (9.4.1 2015-02): fixed a bug affecting 9.4 only. (9.4.17 2018-03): CVE-2018-1058 fix 9.4.262014-122020-02
PostgreSQL 9.3Production Disk page checksum, updatable views, writeable foreign tables, parallel pg_dump, copy freeze, lateral join, materialized views, new functions for JSON, easier switchover with replication. Desupport: PostGIS 2.0. (9.3.2 2013-12) replication and PITR seriuos bug fixed. (9.3.4 2014-03) fixed a seriuos bug affecting 9.3 only. (9.3.22 2018-03) CVE-2018-1058 fix 9.3.252013-092018-11
PostgreSQL 9.2Production Cascading replication, on-slave backup; performance improvements (index-only scan); new SQL features (range data type, JSON data type). Incompatible change: pg_stat_activity. Desupport: PostGIS 1.5. (9.2.6 2013-12) replication and PITR seriuos bug fixed. 9.2.242012-092017-11
PostgreSQL 9.1 Production Synchronous replication; serializable snapshot; Extensions; per-column collation; unlogged tables; K-nearest-neighbor indexes; SE-Postgres; foreign data wrappers (DB gateway); SQL or PL/PgSQL: CREATE TABLE IF NOT EXISTS, INSTEAD OF triggers on views, FOREACH; ... (9.1.11 2013-12) replication and PITR seriuos bug fixed. 9.1.242011-092016-10
PostgreSQL 9.0 Production Streaming Replication and Hot Standby. GRANT/REVOKE IN SCHEMA for mass permission changes. Enhanched stored procedure support, DO with anonymous blocks, Phyton3. Dereferrable unique contraints for bulk load. 64 bit build for WinX. Desupport: PostGIS 1.4 (9.0.15 2013-12) replication and PITR seriuos bug fixed. 9.0.232010-092015-10
PostgreSQL 8.4 Production Performance enhancements (hash index, EXISTS), better free space management, windows functions (OVER clause), CTE (WITH clause), column permission, returns table in functions, ... (8.4.19 2013-12) replication and PITR seriuos bug fixed. 8.4.212009-072014-07
PostgreSQL 8.3UnsupportedVery stable. Full text search, XML, updatable cursors, performance&tuning (eg. asynchronous commit, dedicated writes) 8.3.232008-022013-02
PostgreSQL 8.2 Unsupported Multirow DML, index DDL during DML, SQL:2003 statistical functions, performance&tuning (eg. fast locking, FILLFACTOR, monitor/logging) 8.2.232006-122011-12
PostgreSQL 8.1 Unsupported 2PC, Role based security, IN/OUT/INOUT SQL function parameters, partitioning (constraint_exclusion param.) 8.1.232005-112010-11
PostgreSQL 8.0 Unsupported MS Windows porting, savepoint, point-in-time recovery, tablespaces, Perl server-side language 8.0.262005-012010-10
PostgreSQL 7.0 Unsupported Foreign keys, SQL-92 joins, many optimizer enhanchements; (7.1 2001-04) GiST; (7.3 2003-11) Schemas 7.4.302000-052010-10
PostgreSQL 6.0UnsupportedJDBC 2.0, sqlcli.h, SET CONSTRAINTS, plperl 6.5.31997-012004-06
1.0UnsupportedPostgreSQL: SQL Engine 1.091996
0UnsupportedPostgres95: SQL interpreter, ANSI C, psql, GNU make 0.031995
4Unsupported"post" Ingres project at University of California at Berkeley: POSTGRES with Object-Relational features, PostQUEL, BSD make 4.21987
PostgreSQL generally has 1 major release and 4 minor releases per year, last was on 2021-05-13.
The target date for Minor Releases are the second Thursday of February, May, August, and November;
major releases are often released in November too.
PostgreSQL minor upgrades (eg. 8.4.X to 8.4.X) are easy:
shutdown the databases, upgrade the software and restart.
PostgreSQL major changes (eg. 8.3 to 8.4 or 8.4 to 9.0) require a pg_dump/restore.
For newest releases a smart and fast upgrade procedure have been provided (pg_upgrade).

Enterprise DB offers PostgreSQL database for Enterprise usage and paid support (3K$ socket). In addition to the community version two other PostgreSQL versions can be downloaded:
Postgres Plus Standard Server: community edition integrated with: pgmemcache, pgBouncer, Slony, PostGIS, pgAgent, graphical installation, ... Open Source
Postgres Plus Advanced Server: Standard Server + Oracle compatibility (eg. DBMS_* packages, Oracle dictionary, PL/SQL, DB link, migration studio, ...), DynaTune, SQL/Protect, ... It takes some months after community edition to have an Advanced Server release. The Advanced version is not Open Source and is not free.

AWS offers on RDS both PostgreSQL and Aurora PostgreSQL which is a cloud optimized PostgreSQL compatible DB (eg. Aurora PostgreSQL 1.1 on 2018-03-21 is compatible with Pg 9.6.6 and has support for orafce extension. Latest versions are AP 1.3 Pg 9.6.9 compatible and AP 2.0 Pg 10.4 compatible). Amazon Redshift, an impressive OLAP database service, is based on Postgres 8.0.2 too [NdA even if there are important differences].

PostgreSQL JDBC Support
(Source: Postgres Site)

Postgres Server
Java RTE
Last release
Last release date
JDBC42 4.2 8.2, 8.3, 8.4, 9.0, 9.1, 9.2, 9.3, 9.4, 9.5, 9.6, 10, 11 JDBC 4.2 1.8 42.2.62019-06
JDBC41 4.2 8.2, 8.3, 8.4, 9.0, 9.1, 9.2, 9.3, 9.4, 9.5, 9.6, 10, 11 JDBC 4.1 1.7 42.2.62019-06
JDBC40 4.2 8.2, 8.3, 8.4, 9.0, 9.1, 9.2, 9.3, 9.4, 9.5, 9.6, 10, 11 JDBC 4.0 1.6 42.2.62019-06
JDBC42 9.4 7.2, 7.3, 7.4, 8.0, 8.1, 8.2, 8.3, 8.4, 9.0, 9.1, 9.2, 9.3, 9.4 JDBC 4.2 1.7, 1.8 9.4-12122016-09
JDBC41 9.4 7.2, 7.3, 7.4, 8.0, 8.1, 8.2, 8.3, 8.4, 9.0, 9.1, 9.2, 9.3, 9.4 JDBC 4.1 1.7, 1.8 9.4-12122016-09
JDBC40 9.4 7.2, 7.3, 7.4, 8.0, 8.1, 8.2, 8.3, 8.4, 9.0, 9.1, 9.2, 9.3, 9.4 JDBC 4.0 1.6 9.4-12122016-09
JDBC3 9.3 7.2, 7.3, 7.4, 8.0, 8.1, 8.2, 8.3, 8.4, 9.0, 9.1, 9.2, 9.3 JDBC 3.0 1.4, 1.5 9.3-11042015-01
JDBC2 8.3 7.x, 8.x JDBC 2.0 1.2, 1.3 8.3-6072010-05

Postgres JDBC are backward and forward compatible (current 42.6 JDBC42 driver supports Postgres 8.2 or newer). Postgres JDBC drivers are type 4 (100% pure java). Since version 8.0 they are available for download from Postgres JDBC page [NdE before they were available in the server source code]

PostgreSQL has several additional components. Among the others the geographical extension: PostGIS!
(Source: PostGIS Git (Master) Git (3.1) Git (3.0) TRAC (2.5) TRAC (2.4) 2.0 Manual):

Last release
Date (from)
Date (last)
3.2 Development 3.2.020212021
3.1 Production GEOS 3.9 new features, performance enhancements 3.1.12020-122021-01
3.0 Production Requires Postgres 9.5+, best with Postgres 12+; GEOS 3.6+, Proj 6+. 3.0.32019-102020-11
2.5 Production Postgres 9.4-12 support. 2.5.32018-092019-08
2.4 Production Changed < = > B-Tree index operators, dropped support for PostgreSQL 9.2. (2.4.4 2018-04): PgSQL 11 support 2.4.82017-092019-08
2.3ProductionCustom TOC in, TopoGeom_addElement, TopoGeom_remElement, populate_topology_layer, support for 9.6 parallel query mode 2.3.102016-092019-08
2.2ProductionPROJ 4.6+, KNN works for all geometry types, Topology API in liblwgeom 2.2.82015-102018-11
2.1ProductionFaster! PostgreSQL 9.3 support. New functions for geography, geometry and topology. 2.1.92013-082017-09
2.0ProductionGEOS 3.3, PostgreSQL 9.1. New features: 3D (ST_3D*). Raster (based on GDAL). Topology. Geocoder -> TIGER 2010 US Census. 2.0.72012-042015-03
1.5Production up to pg 8.5; new Geography type for lat/lon; GML, KML format readers; better performance on distance calculation. (1.5.3): up to pg 9.1 (PostgreSQL 9.2 requires PostGis 2.0 or upper) (1.5.6): Added support for pg 9.2 (but not suggested) 1.5.92010-022012-11
1.4ProductionNew API. Requirements: pg >= 8.2, >= GEOS 3.0, >= PROJ4 4.5. Support for compound curves in a curve polygon (SQL-MM) 1.4.22009-032010-03
1.3ProductionEarly adoption of SQL-MM convention. (1.3.6) up to pg 8.4 1.3.62007-082009-05
1.2Production Curved geometry type support for serialization/deserialization; Point-in-polygon shortcircuit to the Contains and Within functions 1.2.12006-122007-01
1.1Production transform() performance; stable GEOS connectivity (GEOS 2.2); new functions; draft topology support. 1.1.72005-122007-01
1.0Production Small footprint data representation as default 1.0.62005-042005-12
0.xPreFirst release from Refractions Research. (0.8): Full support for SFSQL. 0.92001-052005-07
PostGIS Soft Upgrades (eg. 2.0.1 to 2.0.3) are easy:
shutdown the database, upgrade the software, restart, run a simple SQL command
to upgrade the EXTENSION (if Postgres version >= 9.1, with previuos releases and upgrade script is provided).
PostGIS Hard Upgrades require a fresh new installation, a specific dump,
a quite long update of DDL contained in the dump with and the final restore.

PostgreSQL / PostGIS Compatibility Matrix (Source: PostGIS)

PostgreSQL 1.3 1.4 1.5 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 3.0 3.1 3.2
7.2-7.4 Yes No No No No No No No No No No
8.0 Yes No No No No No No No No No No
8.1 Yes No No No No No No No No No No
8.2 Yes Yes No No No No No No No No No
8.3 Yes Yes Yes No No No No No No No No
8.4 Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No No No No No
9.0 No No Yes Yes Yes No No No No No No
9.1 No No Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No No No
9.2 No No Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No No No
9.3 No No No No Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No
9.4 No No No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No
9.5 No No No No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No
9.6 No No No No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
10 No No No No No No No Yes Yes Yes Yes
11 No No No No No No No Yes Yes Yes Yes
12 No No No No No No No No Yes Yes Yes
13 No No No No No No No No Yes Yes Yes

TimescaleDB is the PostgreSQL Time-Series extension.
(Sources: Git TimescaleDB)

Last release
Date (from)
Date (last)
2.0 Production Elastic clustering, distribuited hypertables, manual refresh on continuos aggregates. PG11 or newer required. Many entereprise features now free. (2.2.0 2021-04): PG11 deprecation.
Backwards incompatibilities: API for continuous aggregates, some informational views
1.0 Production Production release. Bucket time epoch on Monday January 3, 2000.
(1.1 2018-12): several optimizations. Beta support for PG11 and timescale-tune.
(1.2 2019-01): Full support for PG11, time-series analytical functions, data reordering (reorder_chunk()). Commercial license: automated data lifecycle management (add_reorder_policy(), add_drop_chunks_policy()). Deprecation: adaptive chunking.
(1.3 2019-05): continuous aggregates. (1.4 2019-06): multiple continuous aggregates, ChunkAppend. (1.5 2019-10): native compression (requires PG10+), data tiering. (1.6 2020-01): allow drop_chunks while keeping continuous aggregates. (1.7 2020-04): PG12 support; deprecation for PG9.6, PG10.
0.xProduction First production release. ALTER EXTENSION upgrade. Requires PostgreSQL 9.6.2 or 10.2.
(0.2.0 2017-07): Trigger support on hypertables. (0.7.0 2017-11): Postgres 10 support. (0.8.0 2017-12): Windows support. (0.9.0 2018-03): Different extension versions on different databases. (0.11.0 2018-08): Adaptive chunking. (0.12.0 2018-09): Scheduler, telemetry usage information.
0.0.xDevelopmentFirst releases... 0.0.12-beta2017-032017-06

Oracle RDBMS

Oracle is the most known commercial RDBMS. Oracle RDBMS has a lot of features, products and versions...
Oracle RDBMS is sold in several Editions:
 Enterprise Edition (full release: 950$ per n. user, 47K$ per socket, all options available (priced)),
 Standard Edition 2 (350$ per n. user, 17K$ per socket, max 4 socket, no options, features: EM, Cluster, ...),
 Personal Edirion (460$ per 1 user, single machine, single user),
 Express (FREE but with many limits)
Software update license and support is generally the 22%. Check current pricing HERE
(Sources: Metalink 161818.1, MOS 742060.1, Support Policies, Oracle Docs (since 7.3.4), Mike Dietrich's blog, Once upon a time )
Last release
Date (from)
Date (to)
Oracle 21c Production Innovation Release. Blockchain Tables, AutoML (Machine Learning), JavaScript Execution in the Database, JSON Data Type, Per-PDB Data Guard Physical Standby, Per-PDB GoldenGate Change Capture, Self-Managing In-Memory, In-Memory Hybrid Columnar Scan, In-Memory Vector Joins with SIMD, Sharding Advisor Tool, Property Graph Visualization Studio, Automatic Materialized Views, Automatic Zone Maps, SQL Macros, Gradual Password Rollover 212020-12 (Cloud) 2023-06
Oracle 20c Preview Blockchain native tables, JSON binary datatype, Automatic In-Memory, Standby Result Cache with Active DG, SQL macros, CDB fine-grained resource model, ...
Desupport: non-CDB architecture!
20.22020-02 (Cloud preview)
Oracle 19c Production 19c ==, terminal patch set for 12.2 and LTS (Long Term Release). Requires OL7, RHEL7 or SLES12. SQL: listagg distinct, DBMS_JOB as interface to DBMS_SCHEDULER, JET instead of Flash in EM Express
(19.7 2020-05): certified with RH/OL 8.0+
Desupport: Oracle multimedia, Oracle Streams, RAC on SE2, PRODUCT_USER_PROFILE, Extended Datatype Support, ...
19.102019-02 (Exadata) 2019-04 (Linux) 2024-04
2027-04 ext.
Oracle 18cProduction New version numbering: 18c == Initially available on Exadata and Cloud. APEX 5.1, Automatic Background Text Index Maintenance, WILDCARD_INDEX in text searches, TREAT expression AS JSON, Transparent Application Continuity (TAC), backups valid on new CDB, DBCA PDB clone, Read Only ORACLE_HOME (new variables: ORACLE_BASE_HOME, ORACLE_BASE_CONFIG), RPM install, support for Oracle Exadata infrastructure patching, ...
Deprecation: Oracle Streams, Oracle multimedia, DBMS_XMLQUERY. Desupport: UTL_FILE_DIR, symbolic links in UTL_FILE, STANDBY_ARCHIVE_DEST
18.132018-02 (Exadata)
2018-03 (Cloud)
2018-07 (On‑premises)
2021-06 Suggested
Oracle 12c R2Production Online partitioning, Online encryption, DBVault simulation, DBA_INDEX_USAGE, Data Guard automatic deploy, CREATE ANALYTIC VIEW, external and partitioned tables on HDFS, ...
For Multitenant: up to 4096 PDB, MAX_PDBS, different character sets, active DG and DG Broker, flashback, hot clone, max_iops, proxy PDB, ...
For Cloud: listener multiple redirects, SQLNET.COMPRESSION, Sharding option, RMAN cross-platform support, ...
Deprecation: DBMS_JOB. Desupport: <= 11.1 clients, Advanced Replication (Cloud)
2017-02 (Exadata)
2017-03 (On‑premises)
Oracle 12cProduction Oracle Multitenant Option (aka Pluggable DBs); Heat Map Optimizations; Adaptive Query Optimization; RMAN improvements (table restore, standby restore, ...); Availability: transparent failover, Global Data Service; Infrastructure: light-weight grid stack, EM express; ILM (information lifecycle); SQL: default with sequence, varchar up to 32k, with-PLSQL functions, ...
Deprecation: Advanced Replication, UTL_FILE_DIR, Non-CDB architecture. Desupport: <= 9.2 clients, raw devices InMemory Option, SE2, ...
Oracle 11g R2ProductionStable, fast, low TCO; ADVM (ASM Dynamic Volume Manager) and ACFS (ASM Cluster File System), Oracle restart (srvctl), Caging (CPU_COUNT), Hybrid Compression; RAC One Node option, SCAN listener, Omotion; Patch Set is a full release
Desupport: raw devices in DBCA, Oracle Ultra Search
Oracle 11gSust.Supp.Availability enhancements, performance optimization (eg. client cache), native PL/SQL compilation, binary XML
Options: Total Recall, Advanced Compression, real application testing (RAT)
Desupport: exp, iSQLPlus, <= 8.1.7 clients (Linux)2012-08 (2015 ES)
Oracle 10g R2 (10.2)Sust.Supp.Stable, COMMIT NOWAIT, fully featured Enterprise Manager, Data Pump compression, Opatch (2013 ES)Suggested
Oracle 10g (10.1)Sust.Supp.sqlplus / as sysdba, Regexp, Flashback tables, expdp/impdp, DBMS_SCHEDULER, "Grid"
Desupport: Rule based Optimizer, <= 7.3.4 clients , init parameters (2012 ES)BAD
Oracle 9i R2 (9.2)Sust.Supp.Very stable, JDK 1.3 in JVM, XML, Dynamic Listener Parameters (2010 ES, 2012 LES)Suggested
Oracle 9i (9.0.1)Unsupp.ETL, RMAN, 9i Data Guard, Parallel DB->RAC, MTS->Shared Server
Desupport: CONNECT Internal, SQL*Net, Server Manager, ESTAT/BSTAT more...
Oracle 8iSust.Supp.8.1.7: Very stable, Enterprise Manager, Apache, JSP
8.1.6: Statspack, DBA Studio, PL/SQL SP
8.1.5: DROP COLUMN, temporary table, Internet, iFS, Java Stored Procedures (2006 ES)Suggested
Oracle 8.0Unsupp.Partitioning, Object option, object types, Full NLS, SQL3, SQL*Net -> Net8, primary key snapshot (2003 ES)
Oracle 7.3Unsupp.Very stable, Temporary tablespaces, Bitmap indexes, UTL_FILE package, DBMS_JOB, multithreading, Spatial Option
Desupport: SQL*Net v.1, sqldba (2002 ES)Suggested
Oracle 7.2Unsupp.Subquery in FROM clause, features x DBA (resizeable datafile, rollback segment shrink) 1995
Oracle 7.1Unsupp.Parellel query, Server Manager, Advanced replication 1994
Oracle 7.0Unsupp.Stored procedures and triggers, Integrity constraints (enforcement), cost-based optimizer, SQL*Net v.2 with 2PC and MTS, Snapshots
Desupport: SQL*Forms v.2.3
Oracle 6.0Unsupp.Row level locking, PL-SQL, Integrity constraints (declaration), new architecture (B*Tree, tablespaces, rollback segments, redo logs)
(6.2): Parallel Server Option
Oracle 5.1Unsupp.Stable, distribuited query1986
Oracle 5.0Unsupp.Fully featured SQL, transaction support, SQL*Net1985
Oracle 4Unsupp.Several porting, read consistency 1984
Oracle 3Unsupp.Rewritten in C language, COMMIT 1981
Oracle 2Unsupp.First commercial RDBMS, written in PDP-11 Assembly, basic SQL, CONNECT BY 1979

Oracle quaterly pubblishes a PSU (Patch Set Updates) for Enterprise Edition and Standard edition software (ID 1454618.1 2118136.2) that adds a fifth number to the Oracle version and is strongly suggested. Patching is performed with the OPatch java utility. Other Oracle patches are CPU (Critical Patch Updates and security alerts), Security Patch Update (SPU) and Bundle patches (for engineered systems like Exadata and ODA). Windows systems use Bundle Patches too.
Since 12c Proactive Bundle Patch (DBBP) have been introduced [NdA DBBP >> PSU], and with 12cR2 Release Updates (RU) and Release Update Revisions (RUR) have been introduced.
Lastest RU/PSU upgrades are (2021-07-20):,,; (2021-04-20):,,,; (2021-01-19):,,,; (2020-10-20):,,,,; (2020-07-14):,,,,; (2020-04-14):,,,,; (2020-01-14):,,,,; (2019-10-15):,,,,; (2019-07-16):,,,,; (2019-04-16):,,,,; (2019-01-15):,,,; (2018-10-16):,,,; (2018-07-17):,,,; (2018-04-17):,,; (2018-01-16):,,; (2017-10-17):,,; (2017-07-18):,,; (2017-06-20): (Proactive Bundle Patch for x86-64); (2017-04-18):,; (2017-01-17):, ( is OJVM only);,,,, ...
Next updates are expected on: 2021-10-19, 2022-01-18, 2022-04-19, 2022-07-19, ...

The previous table is my favourite one... but it is not the official one. The following tables are derived more directly from Oracle support site that is the official reference.

Oracle RDBMS (supported versions)
(Sources: Metalink note 161818.1 Metalink note 742060.1)

Current Patch Set Next Patch Set Available since Premier Support Ends Extended Support Ends Patching Ends Waived ES Ends Notes
21c 21c 2019-02 2023-06 2023-06 2023-06Innovation Release
19 19.12 2019-02 2023-03 2026-03 2026-03LTS
18 18.14 19 2018-02 2023-03 NA 2021-06 18 (was 2016-11 2023-03 NA 2020-11Released first on Cloud.
12.1.0.X None 2013-07 2018-07 2021-07 2021-072019-07Base release is
11.2.0.X None 2009-09 2015-01 2020-12 2020-122018-12Base release is
11.2 Patch Sets are a full release
11.1.0.X None 2007-08 2012-08 2015-08 Base release is
10.2.0.X None 2005 2010-07 2013-07 Limited ES: 2015-07
10.1.0.X None 2003 2009-01 2012-01
9.2.0.X None 2002 2007-07 2010-07
Limited ES: 2012-07

The Oracle Support Policy is a bit complex (Lifetime Support Stages): Premier Support, Extended Support (extra-cost but can be waived for a period or for certain usage [NdA EBS, SAP]), Limited Extended Support, Sustaining Support, Unsupported... but also Market Driven Support. Patching can vary and also the release availability (eg. for different platforms)...

Oracle RDBMS (unsupported versions)

Terminal Patch Set Error Correction Support Ends
Extended Maintenence Support Ends
( for iAS)
31-Dec-2003 No ES. is the terminal general use 9.0 patch set.
Fixes only possible for iAS infrastructure instances on
8.1.7.X 31-Dec-2004 for strategic platforms
31-Dec-2003 for other platforms

(Novell NetWare ended 31-Jan-2003)
31-Dec-2006 for strategic platforms
31-Dec-2005 (or earlier) for others

(No ES for Novell NetWare) is the final Patch Set for 8.1.7.
The desupport date was extended to 31-Dec-2004 for customers on strategic platforms. The ES dates have numerous exceptions. You are strongly advised to refer to the current Desupport Notice.
8.1.6.X 31-Oct-2001 Extended to 01-Jun-2002 for E-Business Suite Customers only. No ES ES is NOT available.
8.1.5.X 01-Jan-2001 No ES exists on Solaris / NT / SNI / SGI only
8.0.6.X 30-Sep-2001 ES ended 30-Sep-2003 Fixes only possible for customers with E-Business Suite (in Server Partitioned mode). Must be on
8.0.5.X OpenVMS 31-Mar-2001
HPUX 64 bit 01-Jan-2001
AIX 64 bit 01-Jan-2001
Other platforms 30-June-2000
No ES  
8.0.4.X 31-Mar-2000  No ES OS/390 was desupported 01-Nov-2000
8.0.3.X 31-Mar-1999 No ES  
7.3.4.X 31-Dec-2000 ES ended 31-Dec-2002 ES has ended

Upgrading Oracle can be a complex task. The RDBMS upgrade generally is smooth (eg. upgrade assistant, manual upgrade, new DB and then exp/imp), the difficulty is to upgrade the applications using Oracle (eg. desupported features, old SQL*Net versions, ...). Oracle documentation is very good (eg. Oracle 11g R2 Behavior Changes).

One of the best options to migrate is to create a new database and perform a logical export and import of data. EXP/IMP can be used to migrate from 5.1 (1986) up to 12g R1. The export must be performed with the right client version tool (EXP/IMP supported matrix):

From / To
5.x EXP5x EXP5x EXP5x EXP5x EXP5x EXP5x EXP5x EXP5x
6.x EXP6x EXP6x EXP6x EXP6x EXP6x EXP6x EXP6x EXP6x
7.x EXP7x EXP7x EXP7x EXP7x EXP7x EXP7x EXP7x EXP7x
8.0.x EXP80x EXP80x EXP80x EXP80x EXP80x EXP80x EXP80x EXP80x
8.1.x EXP81x EXP81x EXP81x EXP81x EXP81x EXP81x EXP81x EXP81x
9.0.1 EXP817 EXP901 EXP901 EXP901 EXP901 EXP901 EXP901 EXP901
9.2.0 EXP817 EXP920 EXP920 EXP920 EXP920 EXP920 EXP920 EXP920
10.1.0 EXP817 EXP920 expdpexpdpexpdpexpdp expdp expdp
10.2.0 No EXP920 expdpexpdpexpdpexpdp expdp expdp
11.1.0, 11.2.0 No EXP920expdpexpdpexpdpexpdp expdp expdp
12.1.0, 12.2.0 No EXP920expdpexpdpexpdpexpdpexpdp expdp

EXPDP/IMPDP should be used from 10g. The export datapump must be performed with the right VERSION parameter and following this (compatibility matrix):

Client tool / DB version
10.1 Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No No
10.2 No Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No
11.1 No No Yes Yes Yes Yes No No
11.2 No No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
12.1 No No No No Yes Yes Yes Yes
12.2 No No No No No Yes Yes Yes
18c No No No No No Yes Yes Yes
19c No No No No No No No Yes

Oracle/Unix Certification Matrix
(Source: Metalink note 169706.1 )
For Oracle 12c see below. Both OS and virtualization/partitioning solution should be certified by Oracle. For Hypervisor certification see this document

Oracle Version 11.2 11.1 10.2 10.1 9.2.0 9.0.1 8.1.7 8.1.6 8.1.5 8.0.6 8.0.5
AIX 5L V5.3 TL 09 SP1 or higher, 64 bit kernel
AIX 6.1 TL 02 SP1 or higher, 64-bit kernel
AIX 7.1 TL 00 SP1 or higher, 64-bit kernel
AIX 6.1L, AIX 5L version 5.3, TL 05, Service Pack 06, AIX 6L version 6.1, TL 00, Service Pack 04 or later 5.2 ML4 or higher, 5.3 ML2 or higher, 6.1

For AIX 6.1, only or higher are certified

CRS with or higher require AIX 5.3 TL5 or higher

5.2 ML1 or higher, 5.3 o 4.3.3 (64bit only)
5.1, 5.2, 5.3 (5L)(64bit only)
4.3.3 (64bit) o 4.3.2, 4.3.3 (32bit)
5.1, 5.2 (5L) (32bit) [patch 2896876 is required if kernel is running in 64bit mode]
4.3.2, 4.3.3 (64bit)
4.3.2, 4.3.3 (32 or 64bit) o 4.2.1 , 4.3.0, 4.3.1, 4.3.2, 4.3.3 (32bit)
4.3.2, 4.3.3 (64bit)
o 4.2.1, 4.3.2, 4.3.3 (32bit)
4.3.2, 4.3.3 (64bit)
o 4.1.4, 4.1.5, 4.2.1, 4.3.2, 4.3.3 (32bit)
4.3.2, 4.3.3 (64bit)
HP-UX 11i V3 patch Bundle Sep/ 2008 (B.11.31.0809.326a) or higher 11.23 and 11.31 (Itanium,PA-RISC) 11.11 (PA-RISC) (64bit)
11.23 (PA-RISC) (64bit)
11.23, 11.31 (PA-RISC / Itanium / IPF)
11.11 (PA-RISC) (64bit)
11.23 (PA-RISC) (64bit)
11.23, 11.31 (IA64 - Itanium)
11.0 (64bit)
11.11 (64bit)
11.23 (PA-RISC) (64bit)
11.31 (PA-RISC) (64bit)(10/30)
11.22, 11.23, 11.31 (IA64 - Itanium)
11.0 (64bit)
11.11 (64bit)
11.0, 11.11(11i) (32bit/64bit) 11.0, 11.11(11i) (32bit/64bit) 11.0, 11.11(11i) (32bit/64bit) 10.20 (32bit)
11.0, 11.11(11i) (32bit/64bit)
10.20 (32bit)
11.0 (32 or 64)
Oracle Solaris
Solaris(64bit) 10 (update 6 or higher), Solaris 11

On Solaris 11, only is certified
export AWT_TOOLKIT=XToolkit

2.9 Update 7 (09/04), 2.10 2.8 Update 7 (02/02), 2.9 Update 6 (04/04), 2.10 (64bit)
Solaris 10 on x86_64
Solaris SPARC 2.8, 2.9 (64bit)
Solaris SPARC 10 (64bit) requires patchset
Solaris x86 2.9, 10
o 2.6, 2.7, 2.8, 2.9 (32bit)
Solaris 10 (32bit) requires patchset
2.8, 2.9 (64bit)
Solaris 10 (64bit) requires patchset
o 2.6, 2.7, 2.8, 2.9 (32bit)
2.8, 2.9 (64bit)
o 2.6, 2.7, 2.8, 2.9 (32bit)
2.8, 2.9 (64bit)
o 2.6, 2.7, 2.8 (32bit)
2.7, 2.8 (64bit)
2.6, 2.7, 2.8 (32bit)
2.7 (64bit)
2.5.1, 2.6, 2.7, 2.8 2.5.1, 2.6, 2.7, 2.8
Oracle Version 11.2 11.1 10.2 10.1 9.2.0 9.0.1 8.1.7 8.1.6 8.1.5 8.0.6 8.0.5
Linux x86_64 EM64T AMD64 OS

RHEL4,OEL4 - update 7 or greater
RHEL5,OEL5 - 5.2 or greater
RHEL6,OEL6 - 6.0 or greater
SLES10 - Kernel or greater
SLES11 - Kernel or greater
Asianux Server 3 SP2

On RHEL6/OEL6, only is certified

Asianux 2.0, [Red Hat,Oracle] Enterprise Linux 4.0:
Asianux Server 3, [Red Hat,Oracle] Enterprise Linux 5.0:
SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 10:
SuSE Linux Enterprise Server 11: or greater
Red Hat Enterprise Linux ( RHEL 3 ) AS/ES (Update 4 or later)
RHEL4 AS/ES (Update 1 or later) or OEL4
2.6.18-8 or higher
SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 9.0 (SLES9) with SP2 or later
SuSE Linux Enterprise Server 10 (SLES10) (or later)
SuSE Linux Enterprise Server 11 (SLES11) or greater
Asianux 2.0
Red Hat Enterprise AS/ES 3.0 (Update 2 or higher)
Red Hat Enterprise AS/ES 4.0 (Update 1 or higher)
2.6.9-11.EL smp
SuSE SLES8 (Service Pack 3 or higher)
Asianux 1.0
Red Hat Enterprise AS/ES 3.0
Red Hat Enterprise AS/ES 4.0
minimum patchset level is
SuSE SLES9 Required - needed for EM64T patch 4261532 patch 4233179
Linux x86 OS
RHEL4,OEL4 - Update 7 or greater which is Kernel 2.6.9-78 or newer
RHEL5, OEL5 - 5.2 or greater which is Kernel 2.6.18-92 or newer
SLES10 - Kernel or higher
SLES 11 - Kernel or greater
Asianux Server 3 SP2

RHEL4, OEL4, Asianux 2.0
RHEL5, OEL5, Asianux Server 3
SuSE SLES11 - Kernel or greater
RHEL 3 AS/ES ( RHEL3 ) (Update 4 or later)
2.4.21-27.EL or higher
RHEL 4 AS/ES ( RHEL4 ) and Oracle Enterprise Linux 4 ( OEL4 )
2.6.9-5.0.5.EL or higher
RHEL 5 AS/ES ( RHEL5 ) and Oracle Enterprise Linux 5 ( OEL5 )
2.6.18-8 or higher
2.6.5-7.201 or higher
SuSE SLES11 - Kernel or greater
Asianux 1.0
2.4.21-27.EL or higher
Asianux 2.0
2.6.9-5.0.5.EL or higher
RHEL AS/ES 2.1 (Update 3 or higher)
2.4.9-e34 or higher
RHEL AS/ES 3.0 (Update 2 or higher)
2.4.21-15.EL or higher
RHEL4 ( patchset required)
SuSE SLES8 (Service Pack 3 or higher)
Red Flag Advanced Server 4.0 (China only)
Miracle Linux Std Ed 2.1 (Japan only)
Asianux 1.0
Red Hat Enterprise AS/ES 2.1
2.4.9-e34 or higher
Red Hat Enterprise AS/ES 3.0
RHEL4 ( patchset required or patchset and Patch 4276910 required)
United Linux 1.0 (SP3 or higher)
Red Flag DC Server 4.0 (China and Hong Kong only)
Monta Vista Carrier Grade Linux 3.0 (embedded)
Miracle Linux Std Ed 2.1 (Japan only)
Asianux 1.0
Caldera OU8+LKP, Red Hat 7.1, Advanced Server 2.1, SuSE 7.1, 7.2, SLES7, Kernel 2.4.4 Caldera OU8+LKP, Miracle 1.0, 2.0, Red Hat 6.1,6.2, EE 6.2, 7.0, 7.1, Advanced Server 2.1, SuSE 7.0, 7.1, 7.2, SLES7, Kernel 2.2.16 Miracle 1.0, Red Hat 6.0,6.1,6.2, EE 6.2, SuSE 6.3, 6.4, 7.0, VA 6.2, Kernel 2.2 Red Hat 6.2, EE 6.2, SuSE 6.3, 6.4, Kernel 2.2 Red Hat 6.2, SuSE 6.4, 7.0, Kernel 2.0.34 2.0.34
Oracle Version 11.2 11.1 10.2 10.1 9.2.0 9.0.1 8.1.7 8.1.6 8.1.5 8.0.6 8.0.5
Linux Itanium OS
Not Available Not Available RHEL AS/ES 3.0 (Update 4 or higher)
RHEL AS/ES 4.0 (Update 1 or higher)
SuSE SLES9 (SP2 or higher)
RHEL 5.0 (Note 748378.1)
2.6.18-8 or higher
RHEL AS/ES 2.1 (Update 6 or higher)
RHEL AS/ES 3.0 (Update 4 or higher)
RHEL AS/ES 4.0 (Update 1 or higher)
Red Flag Advanced Server 4.0 for Itanium 2 (China and Hong Kong only)
SuSE SLES8 (SP4 or later)
SuSE SLES9 (SP1 or later)
Red Hat Enterprise AS/ES 2.1
Red Hat Enterprise AS/ES 3.0
Red Hat Enterprise AS/ES 4.0
United Linux 1.0
Red Flag Advanced Server 4.0 for Itanium 2 (China and Hong Kong only)
Linux on 64-bit zSeries Note:1306889.1 Requirements for Installing Oracle 11gR2 on RHEL 5

Note:1290644.1 Requirements for Installing Oracle 11gR2 64-bit on SLES 11
Note:1308859.1 Requirements for Installing Oracle 11gR2 on SLES 10
Not available Note:415182.1 DB Install Requirements Quick Reference - zSeries based Linux Note:415182.1 DB Install Requirements Quick Reference - zSeries based Linux
Oracle Version 11.2 11.1 10.2 10.1 9.2.0 9.0.1 8.1.7 8.1.6 8.1.5 8.0.6 8.0.5
Linux on Power PC OS
Not Available Not Available o Red Hat Enterprise Linux AS/ES 5.0 (Update 1 or later)
Red Hat Enterprise Linux AS/ES 4.0 (Update 1 or later)
SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 9.0
SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 10.0
Asianux 2.0
Tru64 OS Not Available Not Available 5.1b 5.1b 5.1a, 5.1b 5.0a, 5.1, 5.1a, 5.1b 4.0D-G, 5.0, 5.0a, 5.1, 5.1a, 5.1b(EV5.6 processor or higher) do '/usr/sbin/psrinfo -v' 4.0D-G, 5.0, 5.0a, 5.1 4.0D-G, 5.0, 5.0a, 5.1 4.0D-G, 5.0, 5.0a, 5.1, 5.1a 4.0D-G, 5.0, 5.0a
Mac OS X Not Available Not Available Mac OS X Server 10.5.4 (Intel x86-64)

Only is available and certified only on Mac OS X Server 10.5.4 (Intel x86-64)

Mac OS X Server 10.4(PowerPC)

Mac OS X Server 10.3.9(PowerPC)

Mac OS X Server 10.3.6(PowerPC)

For Oracle 12c less Operating Systems and platforms are supported, all use 64-bit architectures (Source: Metalink note 1587357.1)
OEL7 is certified for only with both UEK and RH kernels (Source: Metalink note 1304727.1)

For Oracle 12c R2 on premise several platforms are supported (Sources: Metalink note 742060.1 Release Schedule Metalink note 1304727.1 Linux Certification for 12cR2 )

Oracle Client/Server Interoperability Matrix
(Source: Metalink note 207303.1)

Server Version
Client Version 21c 12.2 .. 19c 12.1.0 11.2.0 11.1.0 10.2.0 10.1.0 9.2.0 9.0.1 8.1.7 8.1.6 8.1.5 8.0.6 8.0.5 7.3.4
21c Yes Yes Yes No No No No No No No No No No No No
19c Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No No No No No No No No No
18c Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No No No No No No No No No
12.2.0 Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No No No No No No No No No
12.1.0 Yes Yes Yes Yes Was Was No No No No No No No No No
11.2.0 No Yes Yes Yes Was Was No Was No No No No No No No
11.1.0 No No Was Was Was Was Was Was No No No No No No No
10.2.0 No No Was Was Was Was Was Was No Was No No No No No
10.1.0 No No No Was Was Was Was Was Was Was No No No No No
9.2.0 No No No Was Was Was Was Was Was Was No No Was No No
9.0.1 No No No No No No Was Was Was Was Was No Was No Was
8.1.7 No No No No No Was Was Was Was Was Was Was Was Was Was
8.1.6 No No No No No No No No Was Was Was Was Was Was Was
8.1.5 No No No No No No No No No Was Was Was Was Was Was
8.0.6 No No No No No No No Was Was Was Was Was Was Was Was
8.0.5 No No No No No No No No No Was Was Was Was Was Was
7.3.4 No No No No No No No Was Was Was Was Was Was Was Was
Unsupported combinations may appear to work (eg. ALLOWED_LOGON_VERSION_SERVER)... JDBC connections are less version specific. There are bugs sometimes... they require specific patchs.
For database links, connections must be supported in BOTH directions in the matrix.

Oracle SQL*Net/NetX
(Source: Metalink note 1003522.6)

Database Release 7.1.4 7.1.5 7.1.6 7.2.2 7.2.3 7.3.2 7.3.3 7.3.4 8.x / ...
SQL*Net 2.1.4 2.1.5 2.1.6 2.2.2 2.2.3 2.3.2 2.3.3 2.3.4 n/a
Oracle Names server 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.1 2.0 2.0.2 2.0.3 2.0.4 8.x
Oracle Advanced Networking Option n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a 2.3.2 2.3.3 2.3.4 8.0.x
Oracle Advanced Security n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a 8.1.x
Secure Network Services1 1.0.1 1.0.2 1.0.3 1.1 2.0 n/a n/a n/a n/a
Net8 / NetX n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a 8.x
SQL*Net 1 Client can work with V.6 and V.7 Oracle RDBMS. SQL*Net 2 Client can NOT work with V.6 Oracle RDBMS.
This table is related to very old Oracle versions, newer releases are reported in previous table.

Oracle JDBC thin driver
(Source: Metalink note 401934.1, JDBC FAQ, Download page)

Driver File Name
Since (Oracle Version)
Up to (Oracle Version)
Date (from)
11-15 ojdbc11.jar 21c 12.1 2019-04 JDK 11, JDBC 4.3
10-11 ojdbc10.jar 19.3 2019-04 JDK 10, JDBC 4.3
1.8 ojdbc8.jar 12.2 21c 2017-03 JDK 1.8
1.7/1.8 ojdbc7.jar 12g 12g 2013-07 JDK 1.7, JDBC 4.1; JDK 1.8
1.6/1.7 ojdbc6.jar 11g 12.1 2007-08
JDK 1.6, JDBC 4.0 almost full support (no SQLXML)
JDK 1.7 for and succ.
1.5 ojdbc5.jar 10.2 11.2 2005 JDK 1.5, JDBC 3.0 full support
1.4/1.5 ojdbc14.jar 10.2 10.2 2005 JDBC 3.0 full support
1.4 ojdbc14.jar 9.2 10.2 2002 JDBC 3.0 partial support: transaction savepoints, global/local transactions
1.2/1.3 / .jar 9.2 10.2 2002 jar from
1.2 8.1.6 10.2 1999 Core JDBC, JDBC 2.0 Extensions: Connection Pooling, JDBC-XA (no "recover()")
1.1 7.3.4 9.2 1996

Oracle JDBC thin drivers are generally backward and forward compatible. More infos in this document .


Oracle Exadata is an engineered system optimized for Oracle RDBMS with custom storage modules.
Exadata configurations can vary a lot between models. Exadata generally hosts very large OLTP or DWH databases.
(Sources: Oracle, FlashDBA, Wikipedia)
Date (from)
X8 Database servers: X8-2: 1RU 8260 2.4GHz 2-socket 24-core x86, 384GB RAM (expandable to 1.5TB); X8-8: 5RU 8268 2.9GHz 8-socket 24-core x86, 3TB RAM (expandable to 6TB). 2019-04
X7 Database servers: X7-2: two 24-core x86, 384GB RAM (expandable to 1.5TB); X7-8: 8-socket 24-core x86, 3TB RAM (expandable to 6TB). 2017-10
X6 Database servers: X6-2: two 22-core x86, 256GB RAM (expandable to 768GB); X6-8: 8 socket 144-core x86, 2TB RAM (expandable to 6TB).
Storage Servers: High Capacity (HC): 4x PCI Flash cards with 3.2 TB Flash Cache and 12x 8 TB 7,200 RPM disks; Extreme Flash (EF): 8x PCI Flash with 3.2 TB.
X5 X5-2 available as eighth, quarter, half, or full rack. Full rack: 8x 2-socket Xeon E5-2699 v3 (18 core, 2.7Ghz) 256-768GB RAM database servers, 14 Oracle Exadata Storage Servers, InfiniBand switches, 89.6TB Smart Flash Cache+118 4T Disks or 112 1.6TB Flash Drives). 2015-02
X4 X4-2 available as eighth, quarter, half, or full rack. Full rack: 8x 2-socket Xeon E5-2697 v2 (12 core, 2.7Ghz) 256-512GB RAM database servers, 14 Oracle Exadata Storage Servers, InfiniBand switches, 44 TB Smart Flash Cache).
X4-8 full rack only: 2x 8-socket Xeon E7-8895 (15-core, 2.8Ghz) 2-6TB RAM database servers, 14 Oracle Exadata Storage Servers, InfiniBand switches, 44 TB Smart Flash Cache.
X3 New processors and an increased flash: X3-2 (8x 2 CPU Xeon E5-2690 8 core, 2.9Ghz, 256GB RAM) and X3-8 (x2 8 Xeon E7-8870 10 core 2.4Ghz 2TB RAM) 2012-09
X2Two versions: X2-8 (2 DB servers 8 sockets X7560 8 cores 2.3Ghz) and X2-2 (8 DB servers 2 sockets Xeon X5675 6 core, 3.07Ghz). 2010-09
v2On Sun/Oracle HW (Xeon E5540 4 core, 2.5Ghz). 5TB of Flash memory. RBMS 11g R2. 2009-09
v1First release running on HP hardware. Full rack system with 8 database nodes, 14 Exadata storage servers (or “cells”) and the Infiniband network 2008-09

There are specific patches for Exadata systems.
Exadata manteniance requires expert advice and is commonly managed by Oracle Consultancy itself.


Oracle Database Appliance (ODA) is an Oracle engineered system optimized for Oracle RDBMS.
ODA configuration and manteniance is straightforward. ODA targets are small or medium databases.
(Sources: Oracle, ODA for dummies , Wikipedia)
Date (from)
Date (last order)
Date (manager support)
X8-2Two models on 2U, EE xor SE2 licenses, no RAC/HA option: X8-2S: 1xCPU Xeon Gold 5218 (16 core, 2.3GHz), 192GB RAM (expandable to 384GB), 12.8 TB NVMe (usable 6.4TB) not expandable. X8-2M: 2xCPU Xeon Gold 5218 (16 core, 2.3GHz), 384GB RAM (expandable to 768GB), 12.8 TB NVMe expandable to 76.8TB (usable 6.4TB - 38.4TB).
Two nodes on 8U: X8-2-HA (HA): 2 servers with 2xCPU Xeon Gold 5218 (16 core, 2.3GHz), 384GB RAM (expandable to 768GB),46TB SSD Flash/Data, multiple expansion/configuration options up to 92TB SSD / 504TB HDD (raw), EE or SE2 (RAC also on SE2).
X7-2Two models on 1U, EE xor SE2 licenses, no RAC/HA option: X7-2S (Entry): 1xCPU Xeon Silver 4114 (10 core, 2.2GHz), 192GB RAM (expandable to 384GB), 12.8 TB NVMe (usable 5TB). X7-2M (Performance): 2xCPU Xeon Gold 6140 (18 core, 2.3GHz), 384GB RAM (expandable +192GB), 12.8 TB NVMe expandable to 51.2TB (usable 5TB - 20TB).
Two nodes on 6U: X7-2-HA (HA): 2 servers with 2xCPU Xeon Gold 6140 (18 core, 2.3GHz), 384GB RAM (expandable to 768GB), 3TB SSD Redo, 16TB SSD Flash/Data, multiple expansion/configuration options: 60TB - 120TB (HD) or 6.4TB - 51.2TB (SSD), EE or SE2 (RAC also on SE2).
X6-2One node on 1U blade with 10GBase-T Public Network, 10GbE SFP+ Public Network, 6.4TB NVMe Flash Storage (expandable to 12.8TB). ODACLI/ODAADMCLI instead of OAKCLI. X6-2S (Entry): 1xCPU Xeon E5-2630 v4 (10 core, 2.2GHz), 128GB RAM (expandable to 384GB). X6-2M (Performance): 2xCPU Xeon E5-2630 v4 (10 core, 2.2GHz), 256GB RAM (expandable to 768GB). Note: EE xor SE2 licenses, no RAC/HA option (if You need HA use X5-2 or X6-2-HA), lower prices.
(2016-10) X6-2L: 2U 1xCPU Xeon E5-2630 v4 (10 core, 2.2GHz), 256GB RAM (expandable to 768GB), 19TB NVMe Flash Storage (expandable to 28TB), EE xor SE2. X6-2-HA: 6U 2 servers with 2xCPU Xeon E5-2630 v4 (10 core, 2.2GHz), 256GB RAM (expandable to 768GB), 12TB SSD SAS (expandable to 48TB), EE only, RAC available.
X5-26U rack mount. 2 blades with 2xCPU Xeon E5-2699 v3 (18 core, 2.3Ghz), 256GB RAM (expandable to 512GB), infiniband interconnect, 10-GbE external network. Storage: 16x 8TB SAS2 7.2K Disks, 4x 200GB SLD SSD (redo), 4x 400GB SSD (cache). ACFS metadata on SSD. 2015-022017-112022-11
X4-2Evolution from X3-2: 2 blades with CPU Xeon E5-2697 v2 (12 core, 2.7Ghz), 10-GbE external network. Same as previuos model: 256GB RAM, 10-GbE interconnect, 20x 900GB SAS2 10K Disks, 4x 200GB SLD SSD (redo). 2013-122015-022020-02
X3-2Named consistently with Exa systems. 4U rack mount with 2 blade servers and storage. Servers: 2 CPU Xeon E5-2690 (8 core, 2.9Ghz), 256GB RAM, 10GBase-T external network, 10-GbE interconnect. Storage: 20x 900GB SAS2 10K Disks, 4x 200GB SLD SSD (redo). 2013-032013-122019-03
v14U rack mount with disks in front and the 2 servers behind. Servers: 2 CPU Xeon X5675 (6 core, 3.0Ghz), 96GB RAM, 10GBase-T external network, 1GbE fibre interconnect. Storage: 20x 600GB SAS2 15K Disks triple or double (2.5) mirroring, 4x 73GB MLC SSD (redo). Software: Oracle Linux 5.x, Oracle RDBMS 11gR2, RAC. 2011-102013-032018-07

All HW model are supported but only the last released one can be ordered. Some HW reached the last supported Appliance Manager release. Out of support models can be converted to generic x86 system using ODA-Persistivenes scripts. HW expansions are generally available only for the last released model.

On ODA systems software upgrades are performed appling a bundle patch that upgrades the firmware, the infrastructure, and the databases. Bundle patch are generally released one or two months after the PSU release.

(Source: Oracle DocID 888888.1 Engineered Systems Documentation ODACLI/OAKCLI )

Date (from)
19.62020-1Q Fresh provisioning or upgrade.
18.82020-04 Final for ODA X4.
19.52019-11 X5-2 Models or sup. Fresh provisioning only. RU for DB/GI:
18.72019-10 Oracle Database Appliance X8-2S, X8-2M, and X8-2-HA support. PSU/BP/RU for DB/GI:,,, (available also 18.6/12/11 190416)
18.52019-05 Out-of-cycle patching. Final for ODA X3-2. PSU/BP/RU for DB/GI:,,,
18.32019-01Support for 18.3 Oracle RDBMS. X5-2, X4-2, X3-2 migrate to odacli. oakcli for virtualized deployment only. PSU/BP/RU 180417. Last 12.2.x ODA bundle version. Final for ODA v1 PSU/BP/RU 180116. OL 6.9, OVM 3.4.4. X7 and X6 only; Database only. ODA is not part of the ODA patch cycle. PSU/BP/RU 170814, 12gR2 support. OS Kernel is not updated. OL 6.8. Two stacks (ODACLI/DCS). OVM on X7-2-HA (on OAKCLI stack). X7/X6 only. PSU 170814, 12gR2 support, new stack with KVM support (no Hard Partitioning). Not available: OVM, PSU updates: RDBMS,, Infrastructure: UEK2 to UEK4. PSU updates: RDBMS,, Infrastructure: X6-2-HA VM template support. PSU updates: RDBMS,, Infrastructure: OEL 6.8. PSU updates: RDBMS,, Infrastructure: PSU updates: RDBMS,, Infrastructure: This bundle requires (again).
( 2016-10) X6-2-HA PSU updates: RDBMS,, Infrastructure: As always: ILOM, BIOS, Controller, Expander, disk firmwares, ... upgrades. This bundle requires X6-2S and X6-2M. OS upgrade from OEL 5.11 to 6.7. PSU updates: RDBMS,, Infrastructure: This bundle does not upgrade: ILOM, BIOS, Controller, Expander, disk firmwares! This bundle requires for Infra and GI; install one node at a time with --local option. PSU updates: RDBMS,, Infrastructure: PSU updates: RDBMS,, Infrastructure: PSU updates: RDBMS,, Infrastructure: full support (infiniband, SSD for datafile). Common flash cache (unique to ODA). PSU updates: RDBMS,, ... Enhanced Python STIG script 5.10 UEK2 update, OVM 3.2.8 update. PSU updates, OEL 5.10, GI/RDBMS, creation of container databases from oakcli. Oracle 12c databases on ACFS
2.82013-11Support for X4-2. vLAN support
2.72013-07UEK2, OVM 3.2.3
2.62013-04SAP deployment option
2.52013-01The ODA can host a virtual configuration based on OVM (3.1.1). DB is hosted in a special Domain called ODA_BASE.
2.42012-11ASM supports normal redundancy
2.22012-04GI/RDBMS, OEL 5.8

OAS: Oracle Application Server - Oracle Fusion Middleware

Oracle Application Server (OAS) is an environment in which complex enterprise web applications can be deployed.
OAS and Bea WebLogic are now integrated in Oracle Fusion Middleware.
(Sources: Official Blog Download Support Policy Wikipedia)
Last release
Date (from)
Date (to)
12c R2Production JSE 8, JEE 7, Servlet 3.1, EJB 3.2, JSP 2.3. Forms and BI have been integrated, Reports is integrated but deprecated. Multitenancy support. ( 2017-08): Secured Production Mode, Zero Downtime Patching, Service Restart In Place, Message Limit, new JDBS features for Oracle RDBMS 12.2 (2023 ES)Suggested
12cProductionSee also WebLogic Server. JSE 7, Full Java EE 6: Servlet 3.0, JAX-RS 1.1, Java Server Faces 2.2, EJB 3.1, JSP 2.2 (12.1.3): JSE 8 12.1.32011-122017-12 (2019 ES)
11.1.1ProductionOracle Fusion Middleware; OHS2 11g/Apache 2.2 (2017 ES)
10.1.4ProductionPortal only WSRP 10.1.4Suggested
10g R3ProductionJ2EE only J2EE 1.4, EJB 3.0, ADF Struts 1.2, SOAP 1.1 and 1.2, Oblix, OHS 10.1.3/Apache 1.3.34 10.1.320062010 (2011 ES)
10g R2ProductionVery stable release, Forms, Portlets struts, HA migration, larger HW support (eg. AIX) (2011 ES)Suggested
10g SEProductionSEO version
10g R2ProductionStable release, JDK 1.5, Discoverer integration, farm topology, OHS 10.1.2/Apache 1.3.31 10.1.220052010 (2011 ES)
OAS 10gProductionOptimized web cache, OHS 9.0.4/Apache 1.3.28; ( OPatch (2008 ES)
9iAS R2ProductionJDK 1.2, 1.3, 1.4 EJB 1.1, OC4J, OHS 9.0/Apache 1.3.22; (9.0.3): EJB 2.0 (2008 SS)
9iUnsupportedOHS 1.3.19
iAS 8iUnsupportedApache (OHS 1.0/Apache 1.3), OSE (Oracle Servlet Engine), JVM within the RDBMS 1.0.2
1.0UnsupportedProprietary Web Server with DB extensions 3.1

Oracle Application Server is a complex environment because is composed by several products: web server, LDAP, Java Container, Metadata Repository, ... and can host different type of applications: Forms, Portlets, PL/SQL pages, ... generally developed with Oracle Developer.
The compatibility matrix for each version is quite complex (eg. 10g R2 version) and the upgrade guide is an entire book...
Recently Oracle Corp. acquired a lot of companies and middleware products... The new product line is called Oracle Fusion; version and compatibility matrix are a nightmare! This document contains Oracle Fusion support policies and introduces the "Sustained Support" that generally... never ends!

Oracle Developer

Oracle Developer is the name of the ample set of Oracle Development tools.

The relationships are complex because Oracle offers many tools and some of them 
(eg. Forms, Report, Developer, Designer) have a long successful stories and different release numbers
(eg. FORMS 4.5/5/6i/9i/10g/11g REPORTS 2.5/3/5/6i/9i/10g/11g).
Oracle Forms
(Source: Lifetime Support Policies)
Last release
Date (from)
Date (to)
Forms and Reports 12c Production See Oracle Fusion Middleware. BI-Publisher Integration, audio playback, client deployment, customizable logon, and single sign-on, custom color schemes, ... Deprecation: Report
Fusion Middleware 12cProductionIncludes al lot of products like WebLogic, jDeveloper, ... but not Forms nor Reports. Forms can be deployed on WebLogic Server 12c. 12.120112016 ES:2019
Forms and Report 11g R2ProductionPerformance and Monitoring, Real User Experience integration. Easier installation than with 11g R1. ES:2017Suggested
11g R1ProductionJavaScript Desupport: JInitiator ES:2017
10g R2ProductionVery stable release. Desupport: Forms compiled with 10g R2 can not be run with previous releases
10g (9.0.4)ProductionForms Standalone Installation ES:2008
9i (9.0.2)ProductionServlet Engine Desupport: Client/Server, socket protocol, Character interface
6ProductionForms Server: web deploy. (2000): 6i stable! 6i
2005 ES:2008
5UnsupportedGraphical enhancements Desupport: 16-bit
4UnsupportedOracle Forms. MS-windows and X graphical interface
3UnsupportedPL-SQL 3.01992
2UnsupportedSQL*Forms. Graphical Interface. Triggers 2.31985
1UnsupportedIAF. (1984): IAG 1980

Much more info in this detailed document.

Oracle Application Express (APEX)

APEX is the name of simple yet powerful Oracle development environment.
APEX is installed in the Oracle database and is available for free on any database edition.
(Sources: Official site, Support Policy, Wikipedia )
Last release
Date (from)
Date (to)
21 Production Maps, Application Data loading 21.12021-052021-05Suggested
20 Production Redwood user interface, cascading list of values, simplified URLs, native print 20.22020-042020-10Suggested
19 Production Forms Region Type, REST Enabled Forms, Data load, new charts, dark mode, ... 19.22019-032019-11Suggested
18 Production REST Enabled SQL Support, Web Source Modules, Application Builder Improvements, Social Authentication, Mobile UI, ...
(2018-09): Create Page Wizards, Font APEX.
5.1 Production Interactive Grid, JET Charts, Page Designer Enhancements, New Packaged Applications. (5.1.1 2017-03): patch set. (5.1.2 2017-06): cumulative patch set.
5.0 Production Page designer, multiple interactive reports, modal dialogs, universal theme 5.0.42015-042020-04
4.2ProductionBetter and responsive mobile interface, HTML5 support (charts, item types).
(4.2.6 2014-09): bug fixing
4.1ProductionRowid update, improved websheets, better error handling 4.1.12011-082016-08
4.0ProductionDistribuited with Oracle XE 11g. RESTful interface, websheets, plugin, dynamic actions 4.02010-062015-06
3.0ProductionChart (flash), PDF support. (3.0.1): Installable on Oracle XE. (3.1): Interactive reporting. (3.2): Forms conversion 3.220072012
2.1ProductionHTML DB renamed to APEX. Distribuited with Oracle XE 10g. (2.2): Packaged applications 2.120062009
HTML DB 2.0ProductionSQL Workshop 2.020052008
HTML DB 1.5ProductionFirst release. (1.6): Themes 1.620042008

Related to APEX is the Oracle REST Data Services / Application Express Listener that works as an application server interface to APEX providing also a RESTful access.
(Sources: Official site, Support Policy )

Last release
Date (from)
Date (to)
18 Production Oracle REST Data Services Database Authentication
(2018-10 18.3): OAuth 2 authentication
3.0 Production 3.0.22015-062020-06
2.0ProductionMultiple DB connection, restful services Enhancements, command line interface 2.0.102012-122017-12
1.1Production 2011-032016-03
1.0Production 2010-072015-07

Oracle Database Express Edition (XE)

Oracle Express (XE) is an Edition of Oracle Database.
Only few versions are available in this Edition which has several limits, has no support but is free.
(Sources: Official site, Wikipedia, XE 18c )
Last release
Date (from)
18c Production CDB architecture, in-memory column store, compression, spatial&graph, encryption and redaction, partitioning, analytic views. No APEX, no SQL Developer, no SQLcl (but they all can be installed later).
(2018-10) Available on Linux 64bit. Announced for Windows, Docker and as VirtualBox image. (2019-02) Available on Windows too.
18.42018-10Limits: 2 CPU, 2 GB RAM, 3 PDB, 12 GB Data
11g R2Production APEX 4.2.6
Available on Windows 32bits and Linux 32/64bit. 1 CPU, 1 GB RAM, 1 instance, 11 GB Data
10g R2Production APEX 2.1
Available on Windows 32bit and Linux 32bit. 1 CPU, 1 GB RAM, 1 instance, 4 GB Data

Oracle XE is not supported (but it's $free).

Oracle Applications - Oracle eBS

Oracle Applications is the Oracle ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning) product set and is called Oracle E-Business Suite too.

It's composed by several product lines: Oracle Financials, Oracle HR, Oracle Sales, ... there are hundreds of modules.

From a technical point of view Oracle Applications are written with a old Oracle Developer development environment,
run over a supported Oracle Application Server Infrastructure and using up to a recent Oracle RDBMS.
(Sources: Oracle Blog (was Chan's Blog) Announce 12.2.10 Support Policy)
Last release
Date (from)
Date (to)
12.2Production Oracle WebLogic Server adoption (but Forms still requires IAS). Online Patching (adop) with runFS and patchFS. iPad certification. Workflow. Direct upgrade from 11i, 12.0, 12.1. New features on: Order Management, Manifacturing, HR, Supply chain, ... 12.2.10
2031-12 Continuous Innovation Model
12.1ProductionMore deployments options, advanced configuration wizard, AutoConfig enhancements 12.1.3 RPC5
12.1.3 RPC4
12.1.3 RPC3
12.1.3 RPC2
12.1.3 RPC1
2021-12 Your version stinks, it's time to upgrade
12ProductionAn evolution from 11i with an upgraded technology stack: Oracle RDBMS 10g R2, OAS 10g R2, Forms 10g, JDK 6 12.0.6
12.0.8 (HRMS only)
2007-01 2012-01 (2015 ES)Bad. Few installations
11i10ProductionTerminal 11i release. Many new products. JRE 1.4. JInitiator (2013 ES)Stable and with a large installed base.
11i9ProductionOracle RDBMS 9.2 11.5.92003-062008-06
11i8ProductionMany new products. 11.5.820022007
11i7Production9iAS upgrade (, Apache (1.3.19), JInitiator XML 11.5.7 20022007
11i6Production 11.5.6 20022006
11i5ProductionMany new products (eg. ERP/CRM). JInitiator 11.5.5 20012006
11i4ProductionOracle RDBMS 8.1.7. JInitiator 11.5.4 20012006
11i3Production 11.5.3 20012006
11i2Production9iAS ( Apache (1.3.9) 11.5.2 20002006
11i1ProductionMany functional upgrades; Multi Org instead of Multi Set of Books.
Technology Stack: Oracle RDBMS 8.1.6, WebDB (8.1.6), JRE 1.1.8, JInitiator
11ProductionWeb only 11.0.319992007 (2009 SS)
10ProductionNCA model 10.7NCA1998
10ProductionClient/Server 10.7

The technology stack versions reported in the previous table refer to Fresh Install.

The functional part and the technology stack are, mainly, indipendent. The following table reports the currently supported technology stack; since it's quite common to use an old Oracle eBS configuration, previously supported releases are reported too.

(Source: EBS Certifications)

EBS Release
Oracle RDBMS version (was)
Application Server (was)
EBS 12.2 Oracle RDBMS,,, 19.3 (single tenant)

Oracle RAC,,

WebLogic Server: 11gR1 PS5 10.3.6
Web Tier Components:
Java SE JDK 7, 8
EBS 12.1
EBS 12.0
Oracle RDBMS,,, 19.3 (on 12.1.3 single tenant)

Oracle RAC

Forms: Oracle Application Server 10g (,
OC4J: Oracle Application Server 10g (,,
Java SE JDK 6, 7 (not for Forms and Reports)
EBS 11i Oracle RDBMS,

Oracle RAC,

Oracle9i Application Server
Forms Patchset 19 (15, 16, 17, 18) [NdA Forms 6i]
Java SE JDK 6 (1.3, 1.4, 5)
Oracle JDBC 9iR2

The Oracle official EBS Blog [NdA previously Steven Chan's Blog] contains a lot certification infos on supported browsers, development tools, external integrations, ...

It's a long and continuous work to maintain Oracle Applications releases updated.
There are tons of patches and only the needed one must be applied.
Migrations are quite difficoult when there are customizations.
Tecnology stack patching is indipendent and follows RDBMS and OAF schedule.
Every upgrade is different and require careful planning. OS and 32 / 64 bit certification must be checked too...

JD Edwards EnterpriseOne

JD Edwards EnterpriseOne is an ERP for medium sized Enterprises.

It's composed by hundreds of components grouped in modules and sold separately:
 Customer Relationship Management - CRM: Advanced Pricing, Sales Order Management, ...
 Supply Management - SM: Buyer Workspace, Supplier Self Service, ...
 Financial Management Suite - FMS: Financials

From a technical point of view JDE embaraces the Oracle technology stack (WebLogic, RDBMS, BI).
(Sources: Support Policy, Software Update 741781.1, ESU 1053900.1 )
Last release
Fixes (through)
Date (from)
Date (to)
9.2Production 2015-102020-10 (ES 2023)
9.1Production (Upd. 2 on 2014-02) Inventory to G/L reconciliation, Warehouse Management, New One View Reporting Drill Down capabilities, Speed Case Entry Tablet App, Mobile Service Time Entry, Health and Safety Incident Management Upd. 2 2013-7 2012-32017-3 (ES 2020)
9.0ProductionNew Module: Project and Government Contract Accounting (PGCA). (9.0.2 on 2010-11) Upd. 2 2010-9 9.0 2008-9
9.0.2 2010-11
2013-09 (ES 2016)
2015-11 (ES 2018)
8.12Production Upd. 3 2008-5 2006-42011-4 (ES 2014)
8.11Production SP1 Upd. 2 2007-6 2004-122009-12 (ES 2012)
8.10Production Upd. 2 2007-9 2004-62009-6
8.9Production 2003-92008-9
8.0Production Upd. 1 2003-4 2002-062013-12
XeProduction Upd. 8 2004-6 2000-92013-12

The functional part and the technology stack are indipendent. The technology stack for JDE is very wide since JDE supported and still supports many non Oracle products as DBMS (eg. MS SQL Server), Application Server (eg. IBM WebSphere), ...
The following table is derived from multiple sources and is not complete or official... but can be useful as a guide.

(Sources: JDE Statement of Direction, Minimum Technical Requirements 745831.1)

JDE Release
Application Server
JDE E1 9.0 - 9.1

Tools 9.1.x

Oracle RDBMS 11g R2

MS SQL Server 2008, 2008 R2, 2012

IBM DB2 9.7, 10.5

Oracle WebLogic 11g (10.3), WebLogic 12c (12.1)

IBM WebSphere 7.0, WebSphere 8.5

JDE E1 8.12 - 9.0

Tools 8.9x

Oracle RDBMS (10g R2), 11g R1, 11g R2

MS SQL Server 2005, 2008, 2008 R2

IBM DB2 9.7

Oracle OAS 10g R3 (10.1.3), WebLogic 11g (10.3)

IBM (WebSphere 6.1), WebSphere 7.0, WebSphere 8.5

JDE Xe & 8.0

Tools 24.2

Oracle RDBMS (10g R2), 11g R1, 11g R2

MS SQL Server 2008, 2008 R2

IBM DB2 9.7

Oracle OAS 10g R3 (10.1.3), WebLogic 11g (10.3)

IBM (WebSphere 6.1), WebSphere 7.0

For ERP software update is always critical.
There are different types of updates: ESU (Electronic Software Update), ASU (Application Software Update), SP (Service Pack)
Tools Release is a fix to JDE foundation (System) code


DB2 is the IBM's relational DBMS.
Formely was available only on Mainframes z/OS only, currently is available on
OS-400, Linux/AIX/Unix/Windows too. DB2 is available in several Editions like:
Express-C (free), Express, Workgroup, Enterprise, and Avanced Enterprise Edition.
(Source: IBM DB2 Support Wikipedia)
Last release
Date (from)
Date (to)
DB2 11 Production BLU Accelleration, native encryption, HA 11.12016-06Suggested
DB2 10Production(10.1) Heat mapped data, Adaptive compression.
(10.5) BLU Acceleration for reporting and analytics, in-memory columnar processing, JSON objects
DB2 9.0ProductionPure XML; Table partitioning (PARTITION BY RANGE);
(9.5 2007): Simplified Management, BC reliability;
(9.7 2009): Compression, Oracle compatibility (PL/SQL compiler, CLPPlus, datatypes, ...), enhanched WLM (Work Load Manager); (9.7.5 2011) Oracle Compatibility; (9.8) pureScale for Enterprise Server Edition only
DB2 8.0ProductionBetter alignment between platforms; Clustering (ORGANIZE BY DIMENSION); (8.2): security enhancements 2004-032009-04
DB2ProductionMVS Mainframe 1983
SQL/DSProductionVM Mainframe 1980
System-RProtFirst relational prototype (on System 38). IBM pionered the Relational DB: Codd was an IBM employee; SEQUEL, SQL and QBE were IBM projects. But for many years IBM preferred Hierarchical Systems and was Oracle on 1979 to propose the first commercial Relational Database Management System 1970
DB2 updagrades are not so easy...

SQL Server

SQL Server is the Microsoft's relational DBMS. It's available for MS-Windows operating systems only.
SQL Server is sold in different editions (Standard, Business Intelligence, Enterprise).
SQL Server includes several add-on services (Analysis Services, Replication Services, Integration Services, ...).
(Sources: Microsoft KB Microsoft Support Status Wikipedia Unofficial build list SQL Server on Linux)
Latest update
Date (from)
Date (to)
SQL Server 2019 Production Accelerated Database Recovery (ADR), memory-optimized Tempdb, PolyBase external tables, query processing enhancements, ... CU6 15.0.4053.23 2019-042025 2030(ES)
SQL Server 2017 Production Linux and Docker support. CU21 14.0.3335.7 2017-102022 2027(ES)
SQL Server 2016Productionx64 processors only. Enhanced in-memory performance, built-in advanced analytics, dynamic data masking (DDM), ... SP2/CU14 13.0.5830.85
GDRxSP1/CU15 13.0.4604.0
SP1/CU15 13.0.4574.0
RTM/CU9 13.0.2216.0
2016-062021 2026(ES)
SQL Server 2014ProductionIn-Memory, HA enhancements (up to 8 secondaries, Replica wizard, ...), better cloud support (eg. simpified backup, cloud migration wizard, ...) SP3/CU4 12.0.6329.1
SP2/CU18 12.0.5687.1
SP1/CU13 12.0.4522.0
RTM/CU14 12.0.2569.0
2014-062019 2024(ES)
SQL Server 2012Production Many performance improvements, better update managment, SQLServer 2008 emulation mode, High Availability enanchements, Big Data integration (Hadoop). SP4/PCU4 11.0.7001.0
SP3/CU10 11.0.6607.3
SP2/CU16 11.0.5678.0
SP1/MS15-058 11.0.3513.0
RTM/CU11 11.0.2424.00
2012-052017 2022(ES)
SQL Server 2008 R2ProductionMaster Data Services, Report Builder 3.0. SP3: 2014-09 SP3/MS15-058 10.50.6529.00
SP2/MS15-058 10.50.4339.00
SP1/CU14 10.50.2881.00
RTM/CU13 10.50.1815.00
2010-072014 2019(ES)
SQL Server 2008ProductionSemi-structured data, location-dependent data, Full-text search in the Database Engine. SP3/MS15-058 10.00.6535.002008-112014 2019(ES)
SQL Server 2005ProductionXML, CLR Integration, T-SQL Extensions. (SP1): Database mirroring SP4/MS12-070 9.00.53242006-012011 2016(ES)
SQL Server 2000ProductionOS Windows 2000; (2003): 64-bit SP4 8.00.20392000-112008 2013(ES)
SQL Server 7.0ProductionDynamic memory and dynamic space management, new log format, dynamic row-level locking, replication, administration wizards; OLAP SP4 7.00.106319992005 2011(ES)
SQL Server 6.5Production SP5a upd. 6.50.4791996
SQL Server 6.0Production 1995
SQL Server 4.21ProductionBased on Sybase code. Windows NT. 4.211993
SQL Server 1.0ProductionOS/2, 16bit 1989
SQL Server upgrades must be carefully planned and tested.
It is generally better to install a new database and migrate data.


Informix is owned by IBM since 2001 but its history on the RDBMS market is very long:
Relational Database Systems Inc. was created in 1980 and became Informix Corporation in 1986...
(Sources: Official Site Wikipedia Editions )
Last release
Date (from)
Date (to)
14Production 14.10.F3
12ProductionReal-time Analytics; TimeSeries data12.10
11ProductionSQL Administration API; SSO, SSL; JRE 5.0 11.50.xC52009
10ProductionFully released by IBM; JRE 1.4, fragment management 10.00.xC42005
9.0UnsupportedInformix Universal Server: object-oriented, dataBlade; (9.21) IBM, raw tables; (9.3) Bundle Install; (9.4) Enanched Security, Performance, Replication 9.41996
8.0UnsupportedXPS eXtended Parallel Server 1996
7.0UnsupportedInformix Dynamic Server: OLTP and data warehouse 1994
6.0UnsupportedDynamic Scalable Architecture: support for SMP 1994
5.0UnsupportedTransations, 2PC; (5.1) triggers 1990
4.0UnsupportedINFORMIX Turbo renamed INFORMIX-OnLine while the ISAM engine is named INFORMIX-SE 1989
3.0UnsupportedINFORMIX Turbo engine on RSAM 3.30
2.0UnsupportedINFORMIX-SQL, new tools: Informix-4GL 1986
1.10UnsupportedINFORMIX-SQL (separate SQL engine), new tools: ACE, PERFORM 1985
1.0UnsupportedINFORMation on unIX first releases based on ISAM1981-1986
Informix SE upgrades are easy while Informix OnLine upgrades are a bit more complex.


Cache' is the Object Database produced by InterSystems
and used with Ensemble Application Server for many
health care applications.
(Sources: Official Site Last Releases Previous Releases Wikipedia )
Last release
Date (from)
Date (to)
2019Production 2019.22019-032021
2018Production 2018.12018-032020
2017Production 2017.22017-032019
2016Production 2016.22016-022018
2015Production 2015.2.42015-052017
2014ProductionREST support 2014.1.52014-032016
2013Production 2013.1.72013-042015
2012Production 2012.2.52012
2011Production 2011.1.62011
2010Production 2010.2.82010
2009Production 2009.1.62009
2008Production 2008.2.62008
2007Production 2007.1.62007
5.2Production 5.2.2
5.0Production 5.0.16
Cache' upgrades are a bit complex.

Amazon RDS

Amazon RDS is a cloud service and not a database!
Neverless I decided to put it here since it empowers several relational databases.
(Sources: Amazon RDS: MySQL, Oracle (RUR/PSU), SQL Server, PostgreSQL, MariaDB, Aurora MySQL 1, Aurora MySQL 2, Aurora PostgreSQL, Wikipedia)
First release
Last release
Date (from)
Date (no new)
Date (no snap.)
MySQL8. on 2021-08 on 2021-03
Oracle12c19.0.0.02021-01 RUR RUR RUR PSU
11g11.2.0.42020-10 PSUDeprecated on 2020-12
SQL Server201714.00.1000.169.v1RTM CU19 14.00.3281.6
201613.00.2164.0.v1SP2 CU11 13.00.5598.27
201412.00.4422.0.v1SP3 CU4 12.00.6329.1
201211.00.2100.60.v1SP4 GDR 11.0.7493.4
2008 R210.50.2789.0.v1SP3 GDR 10.50.6560.02012-052019-06
Aurora MySQL22.02.09.22018-02Compatible with MySQL 5.7 with MySQL 5.6
Aurora PostgreSQL34.04.0.1 (12.4)Compatible with PostgreSQL 12 (11.9)Compatible with PostgreSQL 11 (10.14)Compatible with PostgreSQL 10 (9.6.19)2017-10Compatible with PostgreSQL 9.6

The database offering by Amazon is not limited to RDS. Amazon developed its own databases like Redshift and DynamoDB, and the AWS marketplace contains more than 500 database services, ...

Microsoft Azure Database

Microsoft Azure is a cloud service and not a database!
Neverless I decided to put it here since it empowers several relational databases.
(Sources: Azure Database SQL Database MySQL MariaDB PostgreSQL Oracle )
Supported Versions
Date from
SQL Database2010-02
MySQL5.6, 5.7, 8.02018-03
PostgreSQL9.5.19, 9.6.15, 10.10, 11.52018-03
MariaDB10.2, 10.3.162018-12
Oracle12.1, 12.2, 18.32019-06

Azure developed its own databases like SQL Database, Cosmos, ...


SQL Standards are very important, since every database vendor claims he is compliant! But it is not always true...
The formal name of the SQL standard is ISO/IEC 9075 "Database Language SQL", but SQL:year is the most used nickname.

(Sources: Wikipedia )

Last release
Date (from)
Date (to)
SQL:2016 Current Pattern matching, JSON. 2016
SQL:2011 Replaced Temporal databases. 2011
SQL:2008 Replaced TRUNCATE, INSTEAD OF. 2008
SQL:2006ReplacedFull XML management, XQuery. 2006
SQL:2003ReplacedWindows functions (OVER clause), sequences, SQL/XML, SQL/MED. 2003
SQL:1999ReplacedA lot a single Core and Optional features: triggers, recursive queries or CTE (WITH clause), transitive closure, procedural languages. 1999
SQL-92ReplacedFirst standard version with Entry, Intermediate and Full conformance. Called also SQL3. 1992
SQL-89ReplacedIntegrity constraints. Called also SQL2. 1989
SQL-86ReplacedFirst ANSI version. Called also SQL-87. 1982

Last standard versions are also split into a number of parts:

Even if there is a consolidated standard, SQL dialects differ a lot for several good reasons (eg. Oracle implemented many features long before the standard, MySQL choosed to not implement complex standard features to keep things easy). Optional parts are often implemented in different way (eg. procedural language) and also basic datatypes differs a lot in the SQL implementations (eg. date/time) ...
Migrating from one RDBMS to an other is always a complex task that must be planned carefully.


SAP is a complete and complex ERP produced by SAP AG.
Current architecture is a client/server utilizing a 3-tiered model.
Tipical installations use a large Oracle database and an ample Unix box.
The programming language is APAB/4.
(Sources: SAP Wiki Wikipedia (SAP ERP) Wikipedia (S4HANA))
Last release
Date (from)
Date (to)
SAP S/4HANAProduction On memory DB Engine. Same SAP ERP functionalities. Available both On-Premise and Cloud.
SAP HANA (the engine) was gradually introduced since 2010 and fully featured on 2013.
1709 (On‑Premise)
1805 (Cloud)
SAP ERPProductionFour functional areas: Financials, Human Capital Management, Operations, Corporate Services
SAP enhancement packages add new features to SAP ERP 6.0: (2006-12): EHP1. (2007-07): EHP2. (2007-12): EHP3. (2008-11): EHP4 for SAP ERP 6.0 / NW7.01. (2010-07): EHP5. (2011-08): EHP6. (2013-08): EHP7. (2013-11): Fiori 1.0 UI for EHP7. (2016-01): EHP8 transition to SAP S/4HANA.
6.0 EhP82005
MySAP ERPProductionNew architecture: ERP Central Component (SAP ECC) 2004
SAP R/3UnsupportedClient Server; several modules (eg. FI-GL General Ledger, HR, MM, SD, PP, ...) ER 4.701992
SAP R/2UnsupportedMainframe based 1978
SAP R/1UnsupportedR = Realtime data processing 1970
SAP installation and configuration requires a big effort. An update can take a very long time.
SAP S/4HANA releases are once per year (on-premise) or quarterly (Cloud).


BAAN is a complete and complex ERP produced by Baan (now Infor).
Tipical installations use a large Oracle database and a powerful Unix/Linux box.
DB2, Informix and SQL Server as database and Windows Server as OS are supported too.
The programming language is Baan 4GL and its interpreter is the Bshell.
(Sources: Infor Wiki)
Last release
Date (from)
Date (to)
Infor M3Production
Infor LNProduction 10.32013-07
ERP LnProductionUnicode support, more languages. (FP6: 2009) (FP7: 2011) (ERP LN 6.1 FP8: 2012) 6.1 FP82005
Baan 5Production Baan5.0 c SP26
Baan 4Production BaanIVc4 SP30
TritonOld 3.1bx


NoSQL is a generic definition for modern web-scale databases who drop SQL and ACID support to archive other objectives
like easy replication support, huge scalability, schema-free, Big Data support, very very fast performance, ...
The tradeoff are: availability vs consistency, latency vs consistency, full vs eventually consistent: BASE (not ACID).

There are several categories among them:
 * Wide Column Store / Column Families (eg. Hadoop / HBase; Cassandra;  ...)
 * Document Store (eg. MongoDB; CouchDB; Couchbase; ...)
 * Key Value (eg. Redis; Berkeley DB, Oracle NOSQL Database; Amazon SimpleDB, DynamoDB; Azure Table Storage; Voldemort; OpenLDAP; TiKV; ...)
 * Search Engine (eg. Elasticsearch, Splunk, Solr; Algolia ...)
 * Graph Databases (eg. Neo4j)
 * Time Series (eg. InfluxDB)
 * Multimodel Databases
 * Object Databases
 * Grid & Cloud Database Solutions
 * XML Databases
 * Multidimensional Databases
 * OLAP o columnar DB (eg. MariaDB column store, ClickHouse, AWS Redshift, Exasol, SAP HANA, Druid)
And many differences also from the CAP point of view (CP: MongoDB, HBase, Redis; AP: CouchDB, Cassandra, DynamoDB)


Hadoop is an open source framework to distribuite processing of large data sets across several (eg. thousands) nodes.
Hadoop has several modules: HDFS (Hadoop Distributed File System), YARN (the job scheduling framework),
MapReduce (the algorithm for processing and generating large data sets in parallel), ...
Hadoop has a grunting shell interface called Pig (quite similar to relational algebra).
There are many tools in the Hadoop ecosystem like HBase (realtime read/write access CP database), Hive, Sqoop, ... 
(Sources: Hadoop, Wikipedia )
Last release
Date (from)
Date (last)
3.x Production Java 8 required. Erasure coding in HDFS. Default ports changed. Shell script rewritten. 3.0.3 (des.)
2.xProductionBased on 0.23. YARN, HA for HDFS, HDFS Federation and Snapshots, binary compatibility for MapReduce hadoop-1.x. (2.2.0 2013-10): GA. (2.5.2 2014-11) (2.6.0 2014-11). (2.7.0 2015-04). (2.7.1 2015-07): stable. (2.6.2 2015-10). 2.5.2 (des.)
2.6.5 (des.)
2.7.5 (des.)
2.8.5 (des.)
2.9.2 (des.)

1.xProductionBased on 0.20.205. HBase support, Hierarchical job queues, Advances in new mapreduce API: Input/Output formats, ChainMapper/Reducer 1.2.12011-122013-08
0.23.xProductionYARN, HDFS Federation 0.23.112011-112014-06
0.20.xProduction ( 2011-05): Stable, large installations
0.xProductionFirst implementation on 2005: HDFS, MapReduce. (0.14.1 2007-09): Apache release 0.222007-092011-12

Hadoop versioning was not simple since several different releases where supported in the same the time (eg. 0.20, 0.22 and 0.23) or changed (0.20 -> 1.0, 0.23 -> 2.0), the numbering schema did not follow the timeline (0.21 on 2010-08, 0.23 on 2011-11 and 0.22 on 2011-12) and the Hadoop distributions and providers choosed freely among them...

Even if Hadoop is a mature Apache project it is not easy to manage the large cluster it uses and configure all the tools that the Hadoop ecosystem contains... Several distributions have been developed to better support the enterprise adoption of Hadoop: (Sources: Hortonworks, Cloudera, MapR )

Last release
Date (from)
HortonworksHDPHortonworks Data Platform is a fully Open Source distribution available on both Linux and MS-Windows.
HDP 3.1 Production Kafka 2.0.0 and few other changes: Hadoop 3.1.1, Hive 3.1.0, HBase 2.0.2, Ranger 1.2.0, Atlas 1.1.0, Ambari 2.7.3, ...; 3.1.02018-12
HDP 3.0 Production Hadoop 3.1.0, container support, GPU processing, Hybrid Cloud provisioning. Almost all components upgraded: Oozie 4.3.1, Hive 3.0.0, Druid 0.12.0, Zeppelin 0.8.0, HBase 2.0.0, Knox 1.0.0, Ranger 1.0.0, Atlas 1.0.0, Ambari 2.7.x, ... Desupport: Flume, Falcon, Manhout, ... 3.0.12018-07
HDP 2.6 Production Hadoop 2.7.3. Upgraded components: Druid 0.9.2, Spark 1.6.3/2.1, Zeppelin 0.7.0, Atlas 0.8.0, Kafka 0.10.1, Ambari 2.5.0, Knox 0.11.0, Ranger 0.7.0, ... 2.6.52017-04
HDP 2.5 Production Hadoop 2.7.3. Upgraded components: Ambari 2.4.0, Spark 1.6.2/2.0, Kafka 0.10.0, Pig 0.16.0, Hive 1.2.1/2.1, Zeppelin 0.6.0, Knox 0.9.0, Ranger 0.6.0, ... 2.5.62016-082018-08
HDP 2.4 Production Hadoop 2.7.1. Upgraded components: Ambari 2.2.1, Spark 1.6.0, HBase 1.1.2, Kafka 0.9.0. 2.4.32016-032018-03
HDP 2.3 Production Hadoop 2.7.1, Hive 1.2.1, Ambari 2.1, Spark 1.3.1, Ranger 0.5. Smart Hadoop configuration, dashboards. Added support for Apache Atlas 0.5 (governance module), Cloudbreak 1.0. (2.3.2): Spark 1.4.1. 2.3.62015-072017-07
HDP 2.2ProductionHadoop 2.6, Hive 0.14. Added support for Apache Spark 1.2.1, Slider 0.60 and Ranger 0.4. Deprecated: Nagios, Ganglia. 2.2.92014-122016-12
HDP 2.1ProductionHadoop 2.4.0, Hive 0.13, Hbase 0.98, Flacon 0.5, Flume 1.4, Ambari 1.6, ... Added support for Solr, Tez, Storm, Falcon, Knox. 2.1.152014-04
HDP 2.0ProductionHadoop 2.2.0, Hive 0.12, Hbase 0.96, Flume 1.4, Ambari 1.4.1, ... 2.0.132013-10
HDP 1.3Production Hadoop 1.2.0 (HDFS, YARN, MapReduce), Pig 0.11, Hive 0.11.0, Apache HBase 0.94.6, Sqoop 1.4.3, ... Oracle connectors. HDFS snapshot for PITR. 1.3.102013-05
HDP 1.2Production Hadoop 1.1.2, Pig 0.10.1, Hive 0.5.0, HBase 0.94.2. 1.22013-02
HDP 1.1Production Some upgrades: Sqoop 1.4.2. 1.12012-09
HDP 1.0Production Based on Apache Hadoop 1.0.3. Contains: Pig 0.9.2, Hive 0.9.0, Apache HBase 0.92.1, Sqoop 1.4.1, Oozie 3.1.2, Apache ZooKeeper 3.3.4, Ganglia 3.2.0, Nagios 3.2.3, ... 1.02012-06
Cloudera CDHCloudera offered the first distribution for Hadoop: CDH (Cloudera Distribution including apache Hadoop). CDH is 100% Open Source but the management interface (Cloudera Manager) is proprietary.
CDH 6ProductionBased on Hadoop 3.0. HBase 2.0, Hive 2.1, Kafka 1.0, Solr 7.0. JDK 1.8. (6.3.3): downloading new versions require a valid license or user. Desupport: Cloudera Express 6.3.42014-03
CDH 5ProductionBased on Hadoop 2.3.0 or later. (5.3.0 2014-12). (5.4.0 2015-04). (5.4.4 2015-07): fixes. (5.5.0): Flume 1.6, Sentry 1.5.1, Spark 1.5.0 (5.6.0 2016-03): EMC DSSD D5 Integration for DataNodes (5.7.0 2016-04): Spark 1.6, HBase 1.2, Hive on Spark, RH/CentOS/OEL 7.2, better performance 5.13.02014-03
CDH 4ProductionBased on Hadoop 2.0 4.7.12012-062015-08
CDH 3Retired 3 upd62011-032013-06
CDH 2Retired 22010-03
CDH 1Retired 12009-03
MapR MapR MapR distribution uses MapR FS instead of HDFS for superior performances and availability. MapR also adds management features in 3 different Editions with increasing funcionalities (M3 community, M5 enterprise, M7 database).
MapR6Production 6.2.02017
MapR5ProductionHadoop 2.7, Spark 1.3.1. (5.2 2016-08): Spark 1.6.1/2.0, Hive 1.2, Pig 0.15, HBase 1.1, ... 5.2.12015-07
MapR4ProductionHadoop 2.5.1, Hive 0.13, Pig 0.14, Spark 1.2.1 4.1.02014-09EOL 2017-01
MapR3Production 3.1.12013-05EOL 2016-02
MapR 1Old(1.2 2011-12): Hadoop 0.23 with MapReduce 2.0 12011

On October 3, 2018 — Cloudera Inc. and Hortonworks Inc. announced their merge leveraging Hortonworks’ end-to-end data management with Cloudera’s data warehousing and machine learning knowledge.
In August 2019 Mapr was sold to Hewlett Packard Enterprise.


HBase is the Hadoop database.
Apache HBase is an open-source, distributed, versioned, non-relational, CP database modeled after Google's Bigtable.
Apache HBase provides Bigtable-like capabilities on top of Hadoop and HDFS.
(Sources: Apache HBase HBase Releases Wikipedia )
Last release
Date (from)
Date (last)
2.0 Production 2.4.02018-042020-12Suggested
1.2+Devel 1.4.92018-12
1.2 Production 1.2.72016-022018-09
1.1 Production 1.1.102015-052017-04
1.0Production 1.0.32015-022016-01
0.98Production 0.98.242014-022017-01
0.94EOL 0.94.272012-052015-03
0.1.0EOLInitial as different subproject 0.1.32008-032008-06
0.16EOLInitial release bundled with Hadoop 0.16.0 0.16.02008-022008-02


Cassandra is an open source NoSQL AP database designed by Facebook to handle large amounts of data across many commodity servers.
Cassandra offers support for clusters spanning multiple servers and datacenters with asynchronous masterless replication.
Cassandra has new query language (CQL). CQL is similar to SQL but it does not supports joins.
Cassandra integrates with Hadoop MapReduce, Pig and Hive.
Cassandra does not offer ACID transactions but BASE transactions and is very, very fast in write operations.
(Sources: Official Site Wikipedia )
Last release
Date (from)
Date (last)
4.0Planned 4.0-beta4
3.10 Production Tick-Tock releases 3.11.92017-022020-11
3Production 3.0.232015-112020-11
2ProductionLightweight transactions (Paxos), trigger 2.0.17 (des.)
2.1.22 (crit.)
1Old Improved read performances. 1.1 row-level isolation 1.2 virtual node clustering 1.2.19
0Old 0.6 MapReduce, input full integration for Hadoop MapReduce jobs. 0.7 Support for Pig output. 0.8 CQL language. 0.82010-04


Hive is an open source database designed on top of Hadoop.
Hive has several data warehouse commands and HiveQL a query language similar to SQL.
HiveQL is the de facto standard SQL interface for Hadoop.
(Sources: Apache Hive Wikipedia )
Last release
Date (from)
Date (last)
3ProductionHadoop 3.x. (3.1.0 2018-07) 3.1.22018-052019-08
2ProductionHadoop 2.x. Hive-on-Spark enhancements, HiveServer2 web UI, CLI mode in Beeline, HPL/SQL, Live Long And Process (LLAP), ... 2.3.82016-022021-01
1ProductionHadoop 1.x and Hadoop 2.x (1.1 2015-03) DISTINCT. (1.2 2015-05) UNION DISTINCT. 1.2.22015-022017-04
0ProductionInternal tool in Facebook and then Open Sourced to Apache. SELECT with UDF and MapReduce extensions. Table partitioning on Hadoop. (0.6 2010-10). (0.7 2011-03) Indexes, HAVING clause. (0.8 2011-12) Bitmap indexes. (0.10 2013-01) CUBE, ROLLUP, GROUPING_ID. (0.11 2013-05) HiveServer2 (better concurrency, security), Beeline (new CLI interface), Join optimizations, Optimized Row Columnar (ORC) file format. (0.12 2013-10) vectorized query. (0.13 2014-04) ACID transactions, subquery, implicit joins, Hive on Tez. (0.14 2014-11) UPDATE, DELETE; dropped support for Hadoop 0.20.x and 0.23.x 0.1420082014-11


MongoDB is the most used NoSQL database according to several statistics.
MongoDB is an Open Source, document database who stores individual data as document (BSON) into collections.
MongoDB has indexes, replication and sharding.
(Sources: MongoDB Downloads Release notes (5.0) (4.4) (4.2) (4.0) Support policy Wikipedia )
Last release
Date (from)
Date (to)
5.0 Production Time Series, new aggregation operators, ... Desupport: geoHaystack Index, geoSearch 5.0.02021-07TBD
4.4 Production Custom Aggregation Expressions, Global Read and Write Concerns, Refinable Shard Keys, IAM authentication, ... 4.4.32020-07TBD
4.2 Production Distribuited transactions, on-demand materialized view, field encryption, ... Desupport: MMAPv1 Storage Engine, mongodump can't be used on sharded clusters, some command and methods (eg. group, eval, copydb, clone, ...) 4.2.52019-08TBD
4.0 Production Multi-document Transactions, new string and conversion opertators for Aggregation, configurable rollbackTimeLimitSecs, ...
Deprecation: MMAPv1 Storage Engine. Desupport: MONGODB-CR authentication, pv0 replica protocol, Master-Slave Replication, TLS 1.0
3.6 Production Default bind on localhost, more Expressive $lookup, ...
Deprecation: MONGODB-CR authentication. Desupport: HTTP REST API
3.4 Production Membership Awareness; zoned sharding; linearizable read concerns, views, and collation; decimal 128 datatype; many new Aggregation Stages and Operators. 3.4.232016-112020-01
3.2 Production WiredTiger as default storage engine, replica set for config server, replication check enhancements, additional CRUD methods in mongo, document validation. Compass GUI. (3.2.1 2016-01) Fixes 3.2.222015-122018-09
3.0ProductionPluggable Engine Stores, WiredTiger storage engine support (document level locks, compression), SHA-1 authentication, replica set up to 50 members, support for collection-level locking in MMAPv1, better explain, ... 3.0.152015-032018-02
2.6ProductionNew writer protocol, bulk operations, Text search enabled by default, query intersection, ... 2.6.122014-042016-10
2.4ProductionV8 JavaScript Engine, Hashed indexes, better geospatial support, database-level locks instead of global locks, ... 2.4.142013-032016-03
2.2ProductionLock yielding, Reader-writers lock at database level (instead of mongod level). 2.2.72012-082014-02
2.0Production 2.0.92011-102013-03
1.8Production 1.8.52011-032012-09
1.6Production 1.6.5-post2010-082012-02
1.4ProductionOfficial RPM 1.4.52010-032012-09
1.2Production 1.22009-122011-06
1.0ProductionFrom PaaS by 10gen to Open Source 1.02009-022010-08

Odd minor releases numbers (eg. 4.3) are development releases.


Apache CouchDB is a database that uses JSON for documents, 
JavaScript for MapReduce indexes, and regular HTTP for its API. CouchDB supports ACID transactions on MVCC.
CouchDB is written in Erlang, uses views for MapReduce and has a very easy web interface (Futon).
(Sources: Wikipedia GitHub CouchDB archives )
Last release
Date (from)
Date (last)
3.0 Production User-defined partitioned databases, automated shard splitting, new automatic compaction daemon. 3.1.12020-022020-09
2.0 Production Native clustering, Mango Query Server JSON-based. 2.3.12016-092019-07
1.xProduction(1.5.0 2013-11). (1.6.0 2014-05). 1.7.12010-072017-11
0.xIncubatedInitialy (since 2005) developed by by Daminen Katz (then moved to Couchbase) become an Apache project on 2008. 0.11.22009-102010-08


Couchbase takes the best from his two parents: CouchDB and Membase.
Couchbase adds to memcached features like persistence, data replication and document management.
(Sources: Couchbase Support Wikipedia )
Last release
Date (from)
Date (last)
6 Production N1QL for analytics, NoETL, Full-Text Search improvements (6.5 2020-01): distributed ACID transactions, additions to N1QL and the Query Service, CTE. Developer preview: index advisor, UDF 6.6.12018-102020-12
5 Production Role Based Access Control (RBAC) for Applications, Full Text Search, N1QL Enhancements, new web console, Visual Query Plan, Query Monitoring 5.5.22017-102018-07
4ProductionMulti-Dimensional Scaling, N1QL (SQL for JSON), indexing, geospatial views, enhanced security, and filtered cross datacenter replication
4.1 (2015-12): Full DML in N1QL, covering indexes, support for Windows 10 and MAC OS X
4.5 (2016-06): Query Workbench, scriptable query shell (CBQ), memory-optimized indexes, full-text search, role-based access control, Docker and OpenShift certification
4.6 (2017-02): Cross datacenter replication, N1QL Enhancements, Data Structures, Big Data connectors, CBImport and CBExport
3Production 3.1.62015-032018-02
2Old 2.52012-12
1OldOn 2011-02 Membase merged with CouchOne creating Couchbase 1.8


Redis is a fast in-memory key-value database. Redis has built-in replication, transactions and different levels of on-disk persistence.
Redis Sentinel provides high availability and Redis Cluster provides automatic partitioning.
(Sources: Release notes Wikipedia Documentation )
Last release
Date (from)
Date (last)
5 Stable Stream data type, ... 5.0.102018-102020-10
4 Old PSYNC2 replication, MEMORY command, 4.0.142017-07
3 Unsupported Clustering 32015-04
2 Unsupported (2.6): LUA server-side scripting 2
1 Unsupported (1.1): journaling 2009-05


Elasticsearch is a powerful search engine written in Java and based on Lucene.
The API uses HTTP and JSON. Logstash in the data collection engine and Kibana is visualization tool.
Elasticsearch indexes can be distribuited in shards on different servers with well scaling performances.
(Sources: Release notes Github EOL dates Documentation )
Last release
Date (from)
Date (last)
Date (EOL)
7 Production Lucene 8, Block-max WAND, Zen2 Cluster, Kibana dark mode and responsive, nanosecond support, ... Desupport: pre 6.0 indexes.
(7.1 2019-05): Some important security features in Elastic Basic license: RBAC and TLS (7.11 2021-01): Changes in licensing from Apache 2.0 to dual licensing with the SSPL or the Elastic License
6 Production Sequence IDs, search scalability, security, migration assistant. Desupport: pre 5.0 indexes.
(6.3 2018-06): Elasticsearch SQL, Lucene 7.3. (6.5): Kibana spaces. (6.6 2019-01): index lifecycle management, cross-cluster search, Lucene 7.6 snapshot. (6.7 2019-03): Elastic Maps. (6.8 2019-05): Some important security features in Elastic Basic license: RBAC and TLS.
5 EOL Unified versioning for Elasticsearch, Logstash, Kibana, and Beats; Painless scripting language; ingest nodes; pipelines. Based on Lucene 6.2. Desupport: pre 2.0 indexes 5.6.162016-102019-032019-03
2 EOL 2.4.62015-102017-062018-02
1 EOL 1.7.62014-022016-112017-01
0 EOL 2010-02

Migration between minor versions (e.g. 6.x to 6.y) can be performed by upgrading one node at a time. Migration between consecutive major versions (e.g. 2.x to 5.x) requires a full cluster restart. Migration between non-consecutive major versions is not supported.


Neo4j is a graph database written in Java available both as server or embedded.
Can be queried by Cypher Query Language through a transactional HTTP endpoint. Neo4j uses Lucene for indexing.
(Sources: Official site Github )
Last release
Date (from)
Date (last)
4 Production System database, Fine-Grained Security, greater Index Key Size, Back Pressure & Flow Control. 4.0.92019-122020-11
3 Production Mixed call within Cypher, Neo4j Sync, new configuration. (3.1 2016-12): Clustering, Security. (3.5 2016-12): Native indexes, fulltex indexes, compiled expressions. 3.5.262016-102021-01
2 EOL Node labels, Neo4j Browser, Schemas, indexes in Cypher 2.3.112014-022017-11
1 EOL 1.9.92010-022014-11
0 EOL 2007

Neo4j supports direct upgrades from previous releases.


InfluxDB is an Open Source time series database written in Go.
Telegraf, InfluxDB, Chronograf and Kapacitor are known as the TICK Stack where InfluxDB is the database component, of course.
(Sources: Official site Github )
Last release
Date (from)
Date (last)
2 Production Whole TICK stack in a component, FLUX for everything. 2.0.72020-112021-06
1 Production API and storage format stability. InfluxDB Enterprise for HA (Closed Source)
(1.7 2018-11): Flux language support, Time Series Index (TSI), performance improvements
(1.8 2020-07): InfluxDB 2.0 API forward compatibility, Flux 0.65


0 EOL High performance datastore for time series data. Single binary written in Go. Simple HTTP(S) APIs. Plugins support for data ingestion protocols: Graphite, collectd, and OpenTSDB. 0.132013-102016-05


ClickHouse is an Open Source columnar database optimized for OLAP queries.
Written in C++ gives real time performance on analytic queries using SQL.
(Sources: Changelog GitHub)
Last release
Date (from)
Date (last)
21 Production REPLACE TABLE, UNION DISTINCT, countSubstrings(), clickhouse-client editor, gRPC, mannWitneyUTest, studentTTest and welchTTest statistics functions. (21.2 2021-02) PostgreSQL table and database engine. (21.3-lts 2021-03) deltaSum (21.4 2021-04) DateTime64, dictGetOrNull
20 Production DateTime64 with sub-second precision, TTL move TO, multiple profiles, more functions in the H3 geo library, reduced ZooKeeper footprint. (20.2.1-prestable 2020-02) CREATE USER, GRANT/REVOKE access, polygon dictionaries (20.3 2020-03) Avro and AvroConfluent input/output format, ALTER... MATERIALIZE TTL, last_successful_update_time for dictionaries, zero() and zero_mt(), system.metric_log, connection sharing for external MySQL dictionaries, new CREATE LIVE VIEW syntax. (, 2020-04) LTS. (, 2020-05) RBAC: standard SQL statement GRANT. (, 2020-07) New system tables: users, roles, grants, ... TTL DELETE WHERE/GROUP BY, PostgreSQL wire protocol, MySQL style global variables, Kafka enhancements. ( 2020-08) EXPLAIN, ILIKE, ORC for output. ( 2020-09) MySQL replica, time_zones, date_trunc. ( 2020-09) column transformers. ( 2020-11) OFFSET in ORDER BY, Int128, Int256 datatypes, AES encryption, system.replicated_fetches, LDAP users. NB: requires a specific procedure for cluster upgrades. ( 2020-12) ALTER UPDATE/DELETE IN PARTITION, COLLATE support for complex datatypes
19 Production (19.1.3 2019-02) ALTER compression codec, Delta codec, CatBoost, HDFS tables, ... (19.3.3 2019-02) KILL MUTATION, toStartOfInterval(), LowCardinality, Protobuf output format, ... ( 2019-03) Multiple JOINS. ( 2019-05) TTL. ( 2019-07) DoubleDelta and Gorilla codecs, H3. (, 2019-09) WITH FILL in ORDER BY, table constraints, cascaded MV, ORC input format, INSERT in Kafka, _timestamp in Kafka, system.metric_log, system.text_log. Experimental: LIVE VIEW, Template format. ( 2019-10) Tiered storage. ( 2019-11) SQL Create Dictionary, full S3 integration. (, 2019-12) LTS.‑lts
18Production New version numbering: year+version. JOIN syntax, ... (18.1.0 2018-07) ALTER DELETE. (18.12.14 2018-09) ALTER UPDATE. 18.16.12018-072018-12
1Production (1.1.54245 2017-07) pubblic release. Dictionary, distribuited DDL, HTTP interface. (1.1.54310 2017-11) custom partitioning, Kafka Engine, arithmetic with time intervals. (1.1.54337 2018-01) MySQL tables, ODBC support. (1.1.54388 2018-06) ALTER DELETE on replicated tables. 1.1.543942017-072018-07
0Production Developed intitially for internal use for Yandex.Metrica, Open sourced on 2016-06 (Apache license 2.0). 2016-06

Upgrades are generally smooth with ClickHouse: shutdown the database, upgrade the software and start the database again. With clusters simply upgrade nodes one by one.
"Stable" releases are quite frequent and sometime have regressions... but You can use Altinity Stable Releases: 1.1.54292, 1.1.54327, 1.1.54343, 1.1.54385, 18.14.15, 18.14.19, 19.11.8,,,,,,,,, or Yandex LTS Releases:,, ...,,,,


TiDB is an Open Source database and supports Hybrid Transactional and Analytical Processing (HTAP) workloads.
It is MySQL compatible and features horizontal scalability, strong consistency, and high availability.
TiDB architecture uses TiDB (stateless SQL Engine), TiKV (key-value Storage Engine), and PD (Placement Driver).
(Sources: Releases GitHub)
Last release
Date (from)
Date (to)
5 Production MPP, cluster indexes, async commit, invisible indexes 5.0.32021-042021-07
4 Production Admin commands, range pruning, 4.0.132020-052021-06
3 Production SQL Optimizer improvements, Views, Window Functions, Range and Hash Partitioning. (3.1-rc 2020-04) 3.0.20
2Production Improvement in MySQL compatibility, SQL optimizer, executor, and stability. (2.1 2018-11) 2.1.192018-042020-05
1 Production MySQL 5.7 compatible, distribuited database that scales both processing and storage. Based on RocksDB key-value engine and Raft consensus algorithm. 1.0.82017-102018-02

DB ranking

The graph shows the popularity of each RDMBS. The scale is logarithmic: Oracle, MySQL and SQL Server are by far the leaders.


Pentaho is a complete Open Source Suite for Business Intelligence. Now [NdE 2015] is owned by Hitachi.
With the subscription You have full support, integrated packages and more intermediate stable releases.
Data Integration ETL - Kettle - PDI
(Sources: Pentaho Community Sourceforge )
Last release
Date (from)
Date (last)
9ProductionMultiple Hadoops, Upgrade Installer, S3 support
8Production(8.0 2017-11) (8.1 2018-04) (8.2 2018-11): OpenJDK 8 support. (8.3 2019-07): data lineage components for AMQP, JMS, Kafka, MQTT.
7ProductionRequires JRE 8. (7.1 2017-05)
5Production 5.1(2014-06), 5.2(2014-10), 5.3 (2015-02), 5.4 (2015-06)
4.xProduction4.3 (2012-04), 4.4 (2012-11), 4.8 (2013-12)
4.2Production Excel Writer step improvements; Progress feedback; Google Analytics step; LDAP Writer step 4.2.02011-092011-10
4.1ProductionAgile BI Plugin 1.0.2. Metadata injection; Enable/Disable hops; New Steps: JSON Input/Output, Conditional, LDAP Output, Run SSH, Email input, String Operation, Write to File, ... 4.1.02010-11
4.0Production 4.0.12010-06
3.2Production 3.2.02009-05
3.1Production 3.1.02008-09
3.0Production 3.0.42008-06
2.5Production 2.5.22007-11

The Pentaho Suite is composed by several environments...

Business Intelligence Server BI
(Sources: Sourceforge Pentaho Community)
Reporting PRD
Pentaho Metadata PME
Pentaho Data Mining Weka - PDMCE

OWB: Oracle Warehouse Builder

OWB (Oracle Warehouse Builder) is an ETL (Extract, Transform, Load) product developed by Oracle.
OWB is generally used to consolidate data between Oracle databases.
(Sources: OWB Blog Wikipedia )
Last release
Date (from)
Date (to)
11.2ProductionLast release of OWB (see ODI).
11gR1ProductionOracle RDBMS 11g certification 2007-07
10gR2Productionintegrated into the Oracle Developer Suite. Dimensional modelling, data profiling, ... 2006-05
10gR1ProductionOracle RDBMS 10g certification
9iProductionmapping debugger, process flow editing, multi-table insert, ... 2003
3iProductionETL mapping designer
2Production 2000-01

OWB upgrades are well documented.
Migration to ODI is strongly suggested.

ODI: Oracle Data Integrator

ODI (Oracle Data Integrator) is an EL-T (Extract, Load, and Transform).
ODI uses a central Repository, external Agents and several graphic tools. ODI supports heterogeneous sources and targets.
(Sources: ODI Blog Wikipedia MOS 456313.1 )
Last release
Date (from)
Date (to)
12R2Production ( 2016-10) ( 2017-09)
10ProductionFirst version based on Sunopsis (acquired by Oracle on 2006)

There are several ways to perform an ODI upgrade. You can upgrade to ODI 12c from ODI and above (,

Apache NiFi

NiFi is an Open Source Project for data flow automation donated by NSA to Apache and currently developed by Hortonworks.
NiFi has a cool graphical UI and can easy escalate using a Zero-Master clustering configuration.
(Sources: Official site Wikipedia Release Notes )
Last release
Date (from)
Date (last)
1ProductionNew UI, Zero Master clustering (1.1.0 2016-11): many improvements. (1.10.0 2019-11): capability to define parameters, stateless NiFi engine. 1.13.22016-082021-03
0ProductionFirst version based on NSA sources 0.7.42015-072017-06

Upgrades are well documented here.


Linux is a Unix kernel on which many GNU/Linux distributions are built. It runs on many HW and it's Free.

Production main releases were even (eg. 2.4, 2.6) while development releases were odd (eg. 2.5). Now... it depends!
Upgrading from one main release to the next one is complex,
while updating from a minor release (eg. 2.4.1 to 2.4.2) is simpler and often automatic
(generally performed by an update tool within the Linux distribution).
(Source: Linux Kernel Archives KernelNewbies Wikipedia )
Last release
Date (from)
Date (to)
5.13 Mainline 5.13-rc32021-05
5.12 Stable 5.12.182018-112019-01
5.11 Stable 5.12.182018-112019-01
5.10 Longterm 5.10.412021-05
5.4 Longterm Ubuntu
5.1 EOL 5.1.162018-112019-01
4.19 Longterm Debian 104.19.1922018-092021-05
4.18 EOL RHEL 84.18.112018-072018-09
4.17 EOL 4.17.62018-042018-07
4.16 EOL 4.16.8 EOL2018-06
4.9 Longterm Debian 94.9.2702017-022021-05
4.7 EOL4.7.52016-092016-09
4.6 EOL4.6.42016-032016-07
4.4LongtermSuper Long Term Support, Ubuntu
4.3 EOL 4.3.42015-112016-01
4.1 EOL 4.1.512015-062018-03
3.18 Longterm 3.18.133 EOL2014-122019-01
3.16 Longterm Debian 83.16.692014-082018-12
3.15 EOL3.15.102014-06
3.14 EOL3.14.79 EOL2014-032016-09
3.12 EOL3.12.702013-112017-02
3.10 EOLRHEL 73.10.1042013-062016-10
3.9 EOL3.9.42013-04
3.8 EOL3.8.13 EOL2013-02
3.7 EOL3.7.10 EOL
3.6 EOL3.6.11
3.4 EOL3.4.1132012-052016-10
3.2EOLDebian 73.2.1012012-012018-03
3.0OldXen dom0 support; Btrfs defrag3.0.802011
2.6Prod EOLFull 64 support (PAE, FS up to 16TB), ext4, JFS, XFS, SELinux; RHEL 4,5,6 EOL LT EOL EOL EOL
2.4OldPlug&Play, USB, PA-RISC; (later): LVM, ext3, Bluetooth2.4.372001
2.2OldBetter SMP performances, NTFS, PowerPC2.2.2619992004
1.2OldAlpha, SPARC, MIPS1.2.131995
1.0OldStable! i386 single processor only1994
0OldBased on MINIX; (0.12): GPL; (0.95): X Windows0.9919911994
There are a lot of good Linux/GNU distributions. In the following there is my favourite list. A good reference is this site.


Debian is a free GNU/Linux distribution very well known by system administrators because its stability and richness.
Debian supports many platforms (eg. Intel, Sparc, ARM, PA-RISC, SPARC, Alpha, S/390, ...).
Debian is the base for many other Linux distribution. Debian uses GNOME UI (User Interface) as default.
You can also use a live image that come in different flavors: GNOME, KDE, LXDE and Xfce, and text console
Last release
Date (from)
Date (last)
10busterstable Linux 4.19, systemd 241, Xfce 4.12, KDE Plasma 5.14, GNOME 3.30, Apache 2.4.38, GNU Compiler 8.3, OpenJDK 11, Perl 5.28, PHP 7.3, Python 3.7.2, MariaDB 10.3, PostgreSQL 11, ... 10.92019-072024-07
9stretcholdstable Linux 4.9, systemd 232, Xfce 4.12, KDE Frameworks 5.28, GNOME 3.22, Apache 2.4.25, GNU Compiler 6.3, OpenJDK 8, Perl 5.24, PHP 7.0, Python 2.7.13 and 3.5.3, MariaDB 10.1, PostgreSQL 9.6, Asterisk 13.14.1, ... 9.132017-062022-06
8jessieoldstable Linux 3.16. systemd; Apache 2.4; PHP 5.6; Python 3.4; PostgreSQL 9.48.112015-042020-06
7wheezyobsoleteLinux 3.2; Xen Hypervisor 4.1.4; PostgreSQL 9.1, MySQL 5.5.30; Asterisk
6.0squeezeobsoleteKernel 2.6.32; kFreeBSD kernel preview on i386/amd64; PKG +29000: KDE Plasma workspace&Apps 4.4.5, X.Org 7.5, Gnome 2.30, LXDE 0.5.0, Xfce 4.6; 3.2.1; Firefox/Iceweasel 3.5.16, Thunderbird/Icedove 3.0.11; Apache 2.2.16, Tomcat 6.0.18; GNU comp. 4.4.5, OpenJDK 6b18; MySQL 5.1.49, PostgreSQL 8.4.6; PHP 5.3.3, Python 2.5.5/2.6.6/3.1.1; HW-=alpha,arm (old),hppa 6.0.102011-022016-02
5.0lenny obsolete Kernel 2.6.26; PKG +23000: X.Org 7.3, Gnome 2.22, KDE 3.5.10, LXDE, Xfce 4.4.2; 2.4.1, KOffice 1.6.3, Evolution 2.22.3, Pidgin (Gaim) 2.4.3; Firefox/iceweasel 3.0.6, Thunderbird/icedove; Apache 2.2.9, Tomcat 5.5.26; GNU comp. 4.3.2, GNU lib. 2.7, openjdk-6-jdk; MySQL 5.0.51a, PostgreSQL 8.3.5; PHP 5.2.6, Python 2.5.2; HW+=Eee PC,arm (EAB)5.0.72009-042012-02
4.0etch obsolete Kernel 2.6.18; PKG +18000: X.Org 7.1 (instead of XFree), Gnome 2.14, KDE 3.5.5a, Xfce 4.4; 2.0.4a, KOffice 1.6, Evolution 2.6.3, Gaim 2.0; Firefox/iceweasel, Thunderbird/icedove 1.5; Apache 2.2; GNU comp. 4.1, GNU lib. 2.3.6; MySQL 5.0.32, PostgreSQL 8.1; PHP 5.2, Python 2.4;HW+=amd64 40r82007-042010
3.1sarge obsolete Kernel 2.4.7 (2.6.8 also on Intelx86); PKG +10000: XFree86 4.3, Gnome 2.8, KDE 3.3; 1.1, Evolution, Gaim; XFS, LVM 3.1r32005-062008
3.0woody obsolete Kernel 2.2.20 (2.4 also available); XFree 4.1, Gnome 1.4, KDE 2.2; Mozzilla, Konqueror; HW=I386, m68k, alpha, powerpc, sparc, arm, ia64, mips, s390, hppa, ... 2002-072006-06
2.2potato obsolete arm, powerpc2.2r72000-082003-06
2.1slink obsolete alpha, sparc19992001
2.0hamm obsolete m68k19981999
1.3bo obsolete 19971998
1.2rex obsolete 19961997
1.1buzz obsolete dpkg19961996
Debian folks are much smarter than me... I have no hint for them.
If You have installed Debian You do not need any suggestion!


Ubuntu is a free GNU/Linux distribution based on Debian with an easier interface very well suited for end users.
(Sources: Ubuntu Wikipedia)
Last release
Date (from)
Date (to)
22.04 LTSJJ Future 2022-042027-04
21.10Impish Indri Future 2021-102022-07
21.04Hirsute Hippo Current 5.11 kernel 21.042021-042022-01
20.10Groovy Gorilla Current 5.8 kernel; GNOME 3.38, glibc 2.32, OpenJDK 11, rustc 1.41, GCC 10, LLVM 11, Python 3.8.6, ruby 2.7.0, php 7.4.9, perl 5.30, golang 1.13. nftables 20.102020-102021-07
20.04 LTSFocal FossaCurrent 5.4 Kernel: new hardware support, virtio-fs, exFAT. Gnome 3.36, Python3, snap-store, libvirt 6.0 20.04.22020-042030-04
19.10Eoan ErmineEnd of life 19.102019-102020-07
19.04Disco DingoEnd of life 5.0 Kernel. Gnome 3.32, OpenStack Stein 19.042019-042020-01
18.10Cosmic Cuttlefish End of life 4.18 Kernel. OpenSSL 1.1.1, OpenJDK 11, Gnome 3.30 18.102018-102019-07
18.04 LTSBionic Beaver Current 4.15 Kernel (cgroup v2, AMD encryption, MD driver). OpenJDK 10 18.04.52018-042023-04
17.10Artful AardvarkEnd of life17.102017-102018-07
17.04Zesty ZapusEnd of life17.042017-042018-01
16.10Yakket Yak End of life 16.102016-102017-07
16.04 LTSXenial Xerus Current Linux kernel 4.4. LXD 2.0, docker 1.10, PHP 7.0, python3, OpenSSH 7.2p2 (with many unsafe components disabled). (2017-02 16.4.2): Fixes. (2017-08 16.4.3): Fixes. 16.04.72016-042021-04
15.10Wily WerewolftEnd of life15.102015-102016-07
15.04Vivid Vervetend of life15.042015-052016-02
14.10Utopic UnicornEnd of life 14.102014-102015-07
14.04 LTSTrusty Tahr Current Linux 3.13; MySQL 5.6,5.6/MariaDB 5.5/PerconaXtraDB 5.5, LibreOffice 4.2.3 14.04.62014-042019-04
13.10Saucy SalamanderEnd of life2013-102014-07
13.04Raring RingtailEnd of life2013-042014-01
12.10Quantal QuetzalEnd of life2012-102014-04
12.04 LTSPrecise PangolinEnd of lifeLinux 3.2, HUD, Rhythmbox, LibreOffice 3.5.4, PayPal 12.04.52012-042017-04
11.10Oneric OcelotEnd of lifeLinux Kernel 3.0, Thunderbird, GTK3 (alt+tab)2011-102013-04
11.04Natty NarwhalEnd of life2011-042012-10
10.10Maverick MeerkatEnd of lifeLinux 2.6.35; new fonts; Evolution 2.30 (faster!), richer sound menu. (Server Ed.) Eucaliptus 2.010.102010-102012-04
10.04 LTSLucid LynxEnd of lifeLinux 2.6.32, faster boot; New languages, Social Network tools10.04.42010-04
2013-04 (2015 server)
9.10Karmic KoalaEnd of lifeUbuntu Enterprise Cloud, OpenOffice 3.1, Firefox 3.52009-102011-04
9.04Jaunty JackalopeEnd of lifeGnome 2.26, OpenOffice 3.0, EXT4, MySQL 5.1, PHP 5.22009-042010-10
8.10Intrepid IbexEnd of life3G wireless; (server): VM builder, full java stack, directory encryption 2008-102010-04
8.04 LTSHardy HenronEnd of lifeiSCSI, Gnome 2.22, OpenOffice (2013 server)
7.10Gusty GibbonEnd of lifeCompiz, Thunderbird 2.0, OpenOffice 2.3, NTFS-3G2007-102009-04
7.4Feisty FawnEnd of lifeOpenOffice 2.2, PHP 5.2; Kernel support for VM2007-042008
6.06Drapper DrakeEnd of lifeFirefox 1.5, Thunderbird 1.5, OpenOffice 2.0, MySQL; LAMP2006-062009
5.10Breezy BadgerEnd of lifePHP 5.0, Gnome 2.12; Boot grafico, Launchpad2005-102007
5.4Hoary HedgehogEnd of lifeMySQL 4.1, Gnome 2.10; kickstart, stand-by2005-042006
4.10Warty WatlogEnd of lifeLinux 2.6.8; Firefox 1.0, Thunderbird 1.0, OpenOffice 1.12004-102006
Some Ubuntu versions are labeled LTS indicating Long Term Support.
There are many variants: Kubuntu (KDE), Edubuntu (Educational), Xubuntu (XFCE), Lubuntu (LXDE), ...

Most Ubuntu users use LTS releases. Updates are easy and can be automatic; to performe an upgrade use do-release-upgrade command.

Red Hat / CentOS / Oracle Enterprise Linux / Fedora

Red Hat [now owned by IBM 2018-10] is an Enterprise Level Linux distribution.
It's available for Server (Red Hat Enterprise Linux AS, Red Hat Enterprise Linux ES (up to 2 CPU/16GB RAM))
or Desktop (Red Hat Enterprise Linux WS, Red Hat Desktop).
RHEL AS or RHEL ES license costs depend on Support Level: Basic (ES), Standard (ES/AS), Premium Support (AS)
With version 5: AS -> Advanced Platform; ES -> Base Server (limits: 2 CPU sockets, 4 virtual instances, no GFS and CS)
With version 5.4 RH anticipated the support for KVM as an enterprise virtualization platform.
One RHEL Advanced Platform license enables the support for all the hosted RH OS guests.

Free Linux CentOS releases are very, very similar to Red Hat's (CentOS is released a bit later than RHEL).
CentOS now is owned by Red Hat [2014].

Oracle Enterprise Linux (OEL or OL) is a close derivative of RHEL too:
Oracle offers a standard RHEL but adds the Unbreakable Enterprise Kernel (UEK) and a public yum repository

Red Hat also contribute to Open Source community with a GPL product: Fedora (since 2003; previously Red Hat Linux). 
Fedora and Enterprise Linux are related:
Community distribution
Enterprise Linux
Fedora 28 Red Hat Enterprise Linux 8
Fedora 20 Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7
Fedora 13 Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6
Fedora Core 6 Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5
Fedora Core 3 Red Hat Enterprise Linux 4
Red Hat Linux 9 Red Hat Enterprise Linux 3
Red Hat Linux 7.2 Red Hat Enterprise Linux 2.1
Red Hat Linux 6.2 Red Hat Linux 6.2E

Red Hat Enterprise Linux - CentOS - Oracle Enterprise Linux - Scientific Linux
(Sources: Red Hat CentOS Oracle Linux Scientific Linux 7.5 Release Notes EndOfLife )

Last release
Date (from)
Date (to)
RHEL 8OoptaProductionKernel 4.18.0-80. Based on Fedora 28. Web console, Systemd 239, Gnome 3.28, PHP 7.2, Perl 5.26, Python 3.6, Node.js 10, MySQL 8.0, MariaDB 10.3, PostgreSQL 10 (9.6 too), ...
(8.1 2019-11) Kernel version: 4.18.0-147
(8.2 2020-04) Kernel version: 4.18.0-193
(8.3 2020-11) Kernel version: 4.18.0-240
(8.4 2021-05) Kernel version: 4.18.0-305
8.42019-052024 (2019 MS2)Suggested
RHEL 7MaipoProductionKernel 3.10.0-123. Based on Fedora 20 with many different administration commands: if, systemctl, ... iSCSI and FCoE in kernel space, XFS as default FS, Open VMware tools, linux containers, ... In place upgrade from 6.x. MariaDB instead of MySQL.
(7.1 2015-03) Kernel version: 3.10.0-229
(7.2 2015-11) Kernel version: 3.10.0-327
(7.3 2016-11) Kernel version: 3.10.0-514
(7.4 2017-07) Kernel version: 3.10.0-693
(7.5 2018-04) Kernel version: 3.10.0-862
(7.6 2018-10) Kernel version: 3.10.0-957
(7.7 2019-08) Kernel version: 3.10.0-1062
(7.8 2020-03) Kernel version: 3.10.0-1127
(7.9 2020-09) Kernel version: 3.10.0-1160
7.92014-062019 (2024 P3, 2027 EL)Suggested
RHEL 6SantiagoProductionKernel 2.6.32-71 New kernel with several optimizations for KVM. dracut support. D language and Tango, Spice, ... Scalability: support for more sockets, CPU, Memory, Storage, ... Application Upgrade: MySQL 5.1, PostgreSQL 8.4, Apache 2.2, memcached, ...; HW=-Itanium
(6.1 2011-05) Kdump, USB 3, CPU/Mem Hot-add, clusterinf (KVM hosts, non-critical resources, SNMP, ...), ...
(6.2 2011-12) Many Virtualization Optimizations, finer Resource Management (cgroup), ...
(6.3 2012-06) Better performance on large systems, USB 3.0
(6.4 2013-02) Oracle ASMLib, memory managemnt enhancements; HAProxy, samba4 upgrade
(6.5 2013-11) Kernel version: 2.6.32-431
(6.6 2014-10) Kernel version: 2.6.32-504. Fixes, updated drivers, JDK 8
(6.7 2015-07) Kernel version: 2.6.32-573
(6.8 2016-05) Kernel version: 2.6.32-642
(6.9 2017-03) Kernel version: 2.6.32-696
(6.10 2018-06) Kernel version: 2.6.32-754
6.102010-112016 (2020 P3, 2023 EL)Suggested
RHEL 5TikangaProductionKernel 2.6.18, Apache 2.2, PHP 5.1, MySQL 5.0.22, Firefox 1.5 ... RHCS and GFS; (5.0 5.1 2007); (5.2 5.3 2008);
(5.4 2009) KVM full support, Hypervisor edition;
(5.5 2010) new platform support (eg. Nehalem-EX, Magny-Cours, POWER7), Large memory management, Single Root I/O Virtualization, Virtualization Technology for Directed I/O (VT-D), PCI-passthrough, enhanched MS-Windows interoperability (eg. Server 2008 R2);
(5.6 2011-01) libvirt 0.8.2, sVirt, para-virtualized Drivers (virtio), global clock sync, ext4, PHP 5.3
(5.7 2011-07) GFS2 fixes
(5.8 2012-02) Entitlement
(5.9 2013-01) Fixes
(5.11 2014-09) Fixes, updated HW support, kernel version: 2.6.18-398. FINAL
5.112007-032013 (2017 P3, 2020 EL)
RHEL 4NahantProduction 3Kernel 2.6.9, up to 32 x86 CPU, up to 8 AMD or Power CPU, 8 TB max filesize, Gnome 2.8, Firefox, ...4.92005-022009 (2012 P3, 2015 EL)
RHEL 3TaroonProduction 3Kernel 2.4.21, up to 16 x86 CPU, up to 8 AMD or Power CPU, Gnome 2.2, Mozilla, ...3.92003-092006 (2010 P3, 2014 EL)
RHEL 2.1Pensacola PanamaUnsupportedKernel 2.4.9, up to 8 x86 CPU, 1 TB max filesize, Gnome 2.0, Netscape, ...2.1 upd 72002-052004 (2009 P3, 2012 EL)

CentOS versions followed Red Hat versions since 2.1. In 2020-12 Red Hat announced the desupport of CentOS 8 to move to CentOS Stream 8, which tracks ahead of a current Red Hat version.

OEL/OL versions are the same of RHEL and CentOS but it can use the Unbreakable Enterprise Kernel (UEK) available since OEL 5.5. The following table reports UEK releases:
(Sources: Unbreakable Enterprise Kernel Oracle Linux 6 Oracle Linux 7 Oracle Linux 8)

UEK Release
uname -r
Linux Kernel
Last Update
Date (from)
UEK R65. 2 Linux 5.4. OEL 7.7, OEL 8.1. Improved support for the Arm. 2021-05
UEK R54.14.354.14.35Upd. 5OEL 7.5 x86-64 or sup. ARM support, ambient capability mask, xz kernel compression, HMM support, KVM full support, KVM backports from 4.15 kernel. Desupport: OL6 2018-06
UEK R44. 7x86_64 only. OEL 6.5, OEL 7.0 or sup. 2016-01
UEK R33. 7x86_64 only. OEL 6.5, OEL 7.0 or sup. DTrace, Linux containers (LXC), Control Groups (cgroups), TCP fast open (TFO), Intel Ivy Bridge (IVB) processor support 2013-10
UEK R22.6.393.0.16Upd. 5OEL 5.8, OEL 6.2 or sup. Not supported on OL7. Scheduler tuning for Java workloads, transmit packet steering (XPS) 2012-03
UEK2.6.322.6.32Same kernel base of RHEL 6. Performance optimizations: IRQ balancing, reduced kernel lock contention, receive packet steering and RDS improvements, improved virtual memory performance 2010-09
An important feature of Red Hat/CentOS/OEL is the automatic update of all the packages configured in the target system.

Changing Red Hat version (eg. 5 -> 6) is much more complex and must be planned.
(Sources: Fedora Old releases Wikipedia)
Last release
Date (from)
Date (to)
Fedora 34 Production 2021-05
Fedora 33 Production Fermium. Node.js 14 2020-10
Fedora 32 Old 2020-05
Fedora 31 Old 2019-10
Fedora 30 Old 2019-04
Fedora 29 Old 2018-10
Fedora 28 Old 2018-05
Fedora 27 Old 2017-11
Fedora 26 Old Kernel 4.11, aarch64 48-bit, DNF 2.0, OpenSSL 1.1.0, OpenVPN 2.4.3, OverlayFS for Docker, Python 3.6, PHP 7.1, Gnome 3.24 2017-07
Fedora 25 Old Kernel 4.8, Gnome 3.22 2016-11
Fedora 24 Old Kernel 4.5 2016-06
Fedora 23 Old Kernel 4.2 2015-05
Fedora 22OldKernel 4.0
Fedora 21OldKernel 3.17.
Cloud product with OpenStack images, AMI for Amazon, ...
Server product can work as domain controller.
Workstation product: Gnome 3.14
Fedora 20HeisenbugOldKernel 3.10/3.11 2013-12
Fedora 19Schrodinger's CatOldKernel 3.9; OpenStack Grizzly, MariaDB (instead of MySQL), LibreOffice 4, Puppet 3.x, Scratch, Node.js, PHP 5.52013-072015-01
Fedora 18Spherical CowOldKernel 3.6.0; firewalld as default2013-012014-01
Fedora 17Beefy MiracleOldKernel 3.3.4; 2012-052013-07
Fedora 16VerneOldKernel 3.1.0; BTRFS as defauld FS; Obsoleting HAL; Cloud: Cloudstack, Aeolus, GlusterFS 2011-112013-02
Fedora 15LovelockOldKernel 2.6.42; LZMA for live images; systemd (instead of SysVinit) 2011-052012-06
Fedora 14LaughlinOldKernel 2.6.35; KDE 4.5; Perl 5.12, Python 2.7, Ruby 1.8.7, D programming, Eclipse Helios; EC2, Spice
==>RHEL 6
Fedora 13GoddardOldKernel 2.6.33 KDE 4.4, Gnome 2.30; Phyton 3; many KVM/VirtIO improvements 2010-052011
Fedora 12ConstantineOldKernel 2.6.31/2.6.32; KDE 4.3; KVM memory management (Huge Pages); Gnome 2.28, KDE 4.3/4.4; PHP 5.3, Perl 6 2009-112010
Fedora 11LeonidasOldKernel 2.6.29; Gnome 2.26, KDE 4.2; 3.1; GCC 4.4, Python 2.6, Eclipse 3.4.2 2009-062010
Fedora 10CambridgeOldKernel 2.6.27; ext4; Gnome 2.24, KDE 4.1, LXDE; 3.0 2008-112009
Fedora 9SulphurOldKernel 2.6.25; Gnome 2.22, KDE 4.0; OpenJDK, Perl 5.10; Firefox 3.0 2008-052009
Fedora 8WerewolfOldKernel 2.6.23; iceTea (JDK); laptop support 2007-112008
Fedora 7MoonshineOldKernel 2.6.21; "Core" and community "Extras" packages merged; Gnome 2.18, KDE 3.5; 2.2, Firefox 2.0; Live CD 2007-032008
Fedora Core 6ZodOldKernel 2.6.18; Firefox 1.5
==>RHEL 5
Fedora Core 5BordeauxOldKernel 2.6.15; Mono 2006-032007
Fedora Core 4StentzOldKernel 2.6.11; Xen; Gnome 2.10, KDE 3.4; Open Office 2.0; HW+=powerpc 2005-062006
Fedora Core 3HeidelbergOldKernel 2.6.9; Gnome 2.8, KDE 3.3; Mozzilla; GRUB
==>RHEL 4
Fedora Core 2TettnangOldKernel 2.6.5; Gnome 2.6, KDE 3.2; SELinux; 2004-052006
Fedora Core 1YarrowOldKernel 2.4.19; based on Red Hat Linux 9; Gnome 2.4, KDE 3.1; XFree86; LILO 2003-112004

Fedora tipically contains cutting edge features and packages that will be available later on RHEL.

Fedora releases are 2 in one year and supported for less than 2 years: it changes fast.


SLES, SUSE Linux Enterprise Server is the Unix system distribuited by Novell.
SLES is targeted for servers (SLED is the Desktop edition).
SLES is known to be very stable and very well supported.
(Source: SUSE Lifecycle Wikipedia)
Last release
Date (from)
Date (to)
SUSE 15Production 15 SP22018-072028
SUSE 12ProductionKernel 3.12.60. (SP1 2016-01) Kernel 3.12.67. (SP2 2016-11) Kernel 4.4.21 12 SP52014-102024
SUSE 11ProductionKernel 2.6.27; OCFS; Mono 2.0
(SP1 2010-06) Kernel 2.6.32
(SP2 2012-02) Kernel 3.0.10
(SP3 2013-07) Kernel 3.0.76. GCC 4.3.4, glibc 2.11.3, perl 5.10, php 5.3, python 2.6.8, ruby 1.8.7
(SP4 2015-07)
11 SP42009-032019
SUSE Linux 10OldXen Virtualization 3.2 10 SP42005-102013
SUSE Linux 9OldKernel 2.6 9 SP42003-102011
SuSE Linux 8OldautoYaST 8 SP22002-04
SuSE Linux 3/94OldFirst release derived from Slackware 1994-03


Alpine is a free GNU/Linux distribution based on musl (instead of glibc) and busybox designed for security and efficiency.
Alpine is widely used in containers.
(Sources: Alpine Wikipedia)
Last release
Date (from)
Date (to)
EdgeDevRolling development release
3.13Production Linux 5.10.7. Node.js 14.15.4 3.13.22021-012022-06
3.12Production Linux 5.4.43. Node.js 12.16.3, LLVM 10.0.0 3.12.72020-052022-06
3.11Production Linux 5.4.5. LLVM 9.0.0, PostgreSQL 12.1 3.11.112019-122022-01
3.10Production Linux 4.19.53. GCC 8.3.0, Busybox 1.30.1, musl libc 1.1.22, LLVM 8.0.0, OpenJDK 11.0.4 3.10.92019-062021-05
3.9Production Kernel 4.19 3.9.62019-062021-01
3.8Production Kernel 4.14 3.8.22018-062020-05
3.7Production Kernel 4.9 3.7.02017-112019-11
3Old(3.2 2015-05): kernel 3.18. 3.6.22014-062019-05
postmarketOS is an Alpine fork for Mobile.

Updates are easy: apk update; apk upgrade

Others Linux distro

A very good reference for Linux distro is Distrowatch... My favourite distro (not yet listed) are: Knoppix (live CD/DVD) [8.1], BackTrack (security/intrusion) [5 R3] now Kali Linux [2018.4], DEFT (forensics) [2018.2], Vyatta [6.5] now VyOS [1.1.8].
Other very important Linux distributions are: Gentoo [weekly builds], Slackware [14.2], Linux Mint [19.1 Tessa], Mandriva now OpenMandriva Lx [4], Mageia [6.1], ... and last but not least FreeBSD [12.0].


Mac OS X is the Apple Unix OS for Apple Mac HW. The core component (kernel and base utilities) is called Darwin.
From 10.8 the name became OS X only; then from 10.12 macOS.
(Source: macOS Latest versions Wikipedia Mac OSX Wikipedia Darwin Security Updates)
Last release
Date (from)
Date (to)
11Big Sur Production M1 ARM chip support. Control Center, Notification Center, renewed graphics and sounds, improvements in many bundled applications: Safari, Messages, Maps, Photos, ... 11.42020-11
10.15Catalina Production 4GB RAM required. Bundled apps for music, video, and podcasts instead of iTunes, Sidecar to connect an iPad. Desupport: 32bit APPs. 10.15.72019-10
10.14Mojave Production Dark mode, Stacks, iOS APPs, final version for 32-bit APP. Apps enhanchements: FaceTime, AppStore, Safari. 10.14.6 SU22018-09
10.13High SierraProductionAPFS as default, HEVC support, Metal2. Apps enhanchements: Photo, Safari, Siri, Notes. 10.13.62017-092021-01
10.12SierraProductionSiri, interaction with different devices. 10.12.62016-092019-11
10.11El CapitanProductionFaster and safer, Windows split, Spotlight improvements (move, resize, AI), ... 10.11.62015-092018-10
10.10YosemiteProductionContinuity and handoff, new notification center, new spotlight, better integration with iOS (8.1 for best results), changed fonts and graphics. (10.10.4 2015-06) Apple Music 10.10.52014-102015-11
10.9MavericksProductionFree upgrade! Darwin 13. Enhanced multi-display support (eg. Dock on each display), energy saving (using timer coaleshing); Enhanced APPs: Finder with tab and tags, Safari 7.0, ... New APPs: Maps, iBook
(10.9.1 2013-12) bug fixing: performance, stability, gmail
(10.9.2 2014-02) bug fixing: SSL, mail
(10.9.3 2014-05) 4K screen support, safari 7.0.3, USB sync (reintroduced)
(10.9.4 2014-07) safari 7.0.5, fixes
(10.9.5 2014-09) XCode upgrade for iOS 8, fixes
10.8Mountain LionProductioniOS 5 features: iMessages, Game Center, Facebook and twitter integration, ... Darwin 12.0 10.8.52012-07
10.7LionProduction2GB RAM required. Launchpad (like iOS), Mission Control, document autosave, hiding scrollbars, iCloud. Darwin 11.4 10.7.52011-07
10.6Snow LeopardProductionDarwin 10.x => Mac OS X 10.6.x; Better performances (eg. 64 drivers); XCode up to 3.2; 2GB RAM required. Desupport: PowerPC; (10.6.4): Safari 5.0; (10.6.6): Mac App Store; (10.6.8) Easy migration to Lion 10.6.82009-08
10.5LeopardProductionDarwin 9.0; Dtrace, ZFS (ro); Many new features: Time Machine, Spaces, Boot Camp, full 64-bit support; Apache 2.2, PHP 5; POSIX UNIX 3 cert.; Desupport: G3 processor 10.5.82007-10
10.4TigerProduction 10.4.112005-04
10.3PantherProduction 10.3.92003-10
10.2JaguarProductionGCC 3.1; IPv6, IPSec; CUPS; Ruby, Python 10.2.82002-08
10.1PumaProduction 10.1.52001-09
10.0CheetahProduction 10.0.42001-03
KodiakBetaPublic Beta 2000-09
1.0HeraProductionMAX OS X Server based on NeXTSTEP 1.2v31999

Software patches are automatic. Upgrades take some time.


AIX is the IBM proprietary Unix Operating System.
It's a powerful one and supports the IBM hardware like P690 the EL box on P4+, 570 on P5; P595, P575; P750, P780 on P7, ...

AIX offers DLPAR (dynamic logical partitioning), WPAR, a powerful JFS, a fully featured SMITTY, ...
(Sources: IBM official site Wikipedia)
Last release
Date (from)
Date (to)
AIX 7.2ProductionPOWER7 or newer CPUs, live kernel update 7.2 TL12015-12Suggested
AIX 7.1Production256 cores/1024 threads support; WPAR can host a AIX 5.2 guest; VIOS and FC on WPAR 7.1 TL42010-09
AIX 6.1ProductionLive Application Mobility, Workload Partitions; Power 6 support; Power 3 desupport 6.1 TL62007-112017-04
AIX 5L 5.3ProductionMicro-partitioning (up to 10 LPAR per CPU), Virtual SCSI TL 122004-082012-04
AIX 5L 5.2ProductionPower 5 support. DLPAR Macro-partitioning (1 LPAR per CPU).
Desupport: Microchannel, ISA bus
AIX 5L 5.1ProductionSecurity improvements. Web-based System Manager. New HW support 2001-052006
AIX 5LProduction 2000-10
AIX 4.3Production 4.3.31997-10
AIX 4.2File >2GB
AIX 4.1File System >2GB 1994
AIX 3.1 1990
AIX/RT 2UNIX System V 1986
AIX upgrades must be carefully planned. There are many compatibility iussues between OS ML, TL, firmware, HW support, ...
Binary compatibility between releases is generally granted.


HP-UX is the Unix OS developed by HP for its hardware
platforms on RISC PA and Itanium processors (eg. Superdome, RP-8400, ...).
HP-UX is available for different OE (Operating Enviroment):
	HP-UX 11i v3 BOE: Base (like FOE+TCOE)
	HP-UX 11i v3 VSE-OE: Virtualization Server (virtualization SW+EOE)
	HP-UX 11i v3 HA-OE: High Availability (Serviceguard)
	HP-UX 11i v3 DC-OE: Data Center (fully featured)
Before were used:
	FOE: Foundation OE: base version (with Apache, Tomcat, Mozilla)
	EOE: Enterprise OE: FOE + GlancePlus, Online JFS
	MCOE: Mission Critical: EOE + ServiceGuard, Workload Manager
	TCOE: Techincal Computing OE

HP-UX has VPAR (virtual partitioning) and NPAR (physical partitioning),
WLM (workload manager) and PRM (process resource manager), iCOD (CPU on demand),
a very robust LVM (logical volume manager), ...
(Source: HP HP-UX Wikipedia)
Last release
Date (from)
Date (to)
11i v3ProductionMultipath, Veritas ClusterFS, Virtualization; Itanium only: Hyperthreading
(Upd 9 2011-09): Superdome2 32-socket support up to 4TB RAM, Containers 3.0 (Upd 14 2015-03): from this release one update per year
11.31 upd 162007-022025Suggested
11i v2ProductionItanium2, ccNUMA; (2004): PA support 11.232003-092015
11i v1.6ProductionItanium, Itanium2 only 11.222002-062015
11i v1.5ProductionItanium only 112001-06Not suggested
11i v1ProductionNPAR, gigabit ethernet, dynamic kernel tuning 11.112000-062015
11Unsupported64-bit addressing, SMP, FC 1997-112005
10.30UnsupportedKernel threads (1x1 model), y2k compliant 10.301997-08
10.20UnsupportedPA-RISC PA2.0 (64-bit register) 10.201996-082003
10UnsupportedSupport for 700 (WS) and 800 (Server), SVR4 like directory structure, LVM for all platforms 10.101996-02
9.0UnsupportedSAM, LVM (Logical Volume Manager) 1992
8.0UnsupportedShared lib 1991
7.0UnsupportedMotif 1989
1.0Unsupported 1986
Applying OS patches is generally easy. Upgrading the operating system is more complex (compatibility iussues).
Binary compatibility is generally granted (not from PA to Itanium!).


Solaris/SunOS is the Unix OS from Sun Microsystems (now Oracle).
It's an important Unix system who introduced several innovations
(eg. Yellow pages, NFS, DTrace, ZFS, ...).
Of course Solaris/SunOS support both SUN Sparc processors and Intel ones.
(Sources: Solaris Official Site Wikipedia)
Last release
Date (from)
Date (to)
11ProductionSunOS 5.11. Full virtualization support (OS, network, storage), Zones and ZFS as default, read-only Zones, ZFS with deduplication, Cloud management, Image Packaging System (pkg) HW: + SPARC T4 - UltraSPARC II, III, IV, Intel 32-bit
(11.1): up to 32 TB RAM, up to 1000 processors; optimized interface to Oracle SGA, Cloud management
(11.2): OpenStack, puppet, elastic virtual switch
(11.3): live migration of zones, Infiniband for kernel zones, ZFS LZ4, OpenStack Juno
(11.4): bundled software (eg. MySQL 5.7, Oracle instant client 12.2, ...), cloudbase-init,
11 ExpressProductionSunOS 5.11; Containers, network virtualization, ZFS deduplication 11/102010-112034-11
Solaris 10ProductionSunOS 5.10. Container/Zones (virtualization), DTrace, NFS v4, AMD and x86 processor full support;
(6/06 U2): ZFS (advanced FS)
(8/07 U4): iSCSI, Samba with AD, containers for Linux
(5/09 U7): Nehalem, containers cloning using ZFS
(9/10 U9): P2Zone
8/11 (U10)2005-012021-01
Solaris 9ProductionResource management, SVM (solaris volume manager), 1x1 thread model as default 9/052002-052014
Solaris 8ProductionFreeware version available, CPC (cyclic page cache), forced unmount, IPv5, IPsec, enhanched thread library 8 2/0420002012
Solaris 7Unsupported64-bit kernel, 64-bit procs, UFS log 7 11/9919982008
Solaris 2.6UnsupportedLarge files, Processor sets, UFS directIO 2.619972006
Solaris 2.5UnsupportedSunOS 5.5. NFS v3, large kernel pages, UltraSPARC 2.5.119952003
Solaris 2.4UnsupportedSunOS 5.4. First SPARC/x86 version, 20-way SMP, CDE 2.419942003
Solaris 2.0UnsupportedVFS, SunOS 5.0, Many System V enhanchements; (1992): Intel edition 2.319922002
SunOS 4UnsupportedFirst Solaris version 4.1.419912003
SunOS 1UnsupportedBased on BSD 4.1 1982

OSF/1 Tru64

OSF/1 is the original name of the Unix OS designed by Dec for their powerful Alpha processor.
The name changed to Digital UNIX after the X/Open standard adoption.
The name changed to Compaq Tru64 after Compaq's purchase.
Later on HP puchased Compaq and Tru64 will not have an evolution but only maintenance releases.

Tru64 is a powerful Unix system: AdvFS, 64-bit complete support, cluster file system, ...
Last release
Date (from)
Date (to)
Tru64 5.1ProductionES80, GS* new cc-NUMA system support, Capacity on Demand, IPv6, cluster enhanchements 5.1B-32000
Tru64 5.0UnsupportedCluster File System 1999
Compaq Tru64 4.0UnsupportedNFS on TCP, X11R6, CDE, PCMCIA, SCSI Dynamic Device Recognition; (4.0A): AlphaServer 8200, 8400 support 4.0G19962000
Digital UnixUnsupported 1995
OSF/1 1.2UnsupportedBSD flavour with Mach kernel. Alpha processor support. 1.31992
Tru64 is in phase-out. You must migrate to an other OS.
It is not easy since it has several unique features...


Microsoft produces MS-Windows Operating System for both Client and Server Environments.
Name changes, releases and patches are very frequent.
Sometimes there are problems with stability... but the OS is very feature rich.

Each version has several editions with different functionalities and prices.
(Sources: Wikipedia Microsoft product lifecycle)
Last release
Date (from)
Date (to)
Windows Server 2019 Production Admin Center, Advanced Threat Protection; Kubernetes, Linux containers NT 10 18092018-112024
2029 ES
Windows Server 2016 Production PowerShell 5.1, IIS 10 with HTTP/2 support, Windows Server Containers, rolling Hyper-V cluster update, ... NT 10.0.15063.5402016-102022
2027 ES
Windows 10ProductionAction center, Start menu, Cortana voice assistant, Project Spartan browser., NT 10.0.15063.5402015-072020
2025 ES
Windows Server 2012ProductionMetro UI, Power shell 3.0, IE 10, USB 3 (Windows Server 2012 R2 2013-10) NT 6.3. Power shell 4.0 NT 6.32012-092018
2023 ES
Windows 8ProductionMetro UI, Power shell 3.0, IE 10, USB 3 (8.1 2013-10) NT 6.3. Updated user interface and desktop, update App set NT 6.32012-102018
2023 ES
Windows Server 2008 R2Production64 bit only, many virtualization features (eg. Hyper.V live migration), IIS 7.5, Active Directory new features NT 6.1 SP12009-102013
2020 ES
Windows 7ProductionStabler and better performances then Vista; Superbar, new shell NT 6.1 SP12009-102015
2020 ES
Windows Server 2008ProductionImproved security, .NET Framework 3.0, CPU and Memory Plug and Play NT 6.0 SP22008-022013
2018 ES
Windows VistaProductionNew 3D desktop (Aero available in Home Premium Edition) 6.0 SP22007-012012
2017 ES
Client BAD
Windows 2003ProductionMore scaleable and better performances, New IIS Server, better NT 4 compatibility, AD Enhancements. 5.2 SP220032015 ESServer
Windows XPProductionHome and Professional editions 5.1 SP320012014 ESClient
Windows 2000ProductionProfessional and Server editions; Active Directory, Plug and Play, USB 5.0 SP4 R1 v220002010 ES
Windows MeProductionBased on Windows 98 4.90.300020002006Client
Windows 98ProductionBased on Windows 95 4.10.2222A19982006Client
Windows NT 4ProductionLast major release of NT to support the Alpha, MIPS or PowerPC architectures 4.0 SP 6a19962004Server
Windows 95Production SR 2.519952001Client
Windows NT 3.51Production 1995Server
Windows 1Production 1.011985Client
If You do not costantly upgrade the system with the latest patches the risk of a security break is very high.


There are several OS that are installed on mobile phones. Smartphone generally indicate a powerful, feature rich (eg. multitasking, touch screen, WiFi, GPS, ...) phone on which You can install downloadable custom Apps.
Among others: Apple iOS, Google Android, Microsoft Microsoft Phone, Microsoft Microsoft Mobile, Nokia Symbian OS, Nokia Maemo, RIM BlackBerry, HP PalmOS, Amazon Kindle, ...

iOS / iPhone OS

iOS (previously iPhone OS) is the operating system for iPhones (for iPad, iPod, Apple TV and Apple Watch) developed by Apple.
iOS derives from MAC OS X.
(Source: Apple iOS Wikipedia)
Last release
Date (from)
Date (to)
14 Production Widgets, App library, several core App updates (14.1 2020-10): initial release for iPhone 12 14.5.12020-12
13 Production Optimized battery charging. Dark mode, new emoji, video resolution and framerate in Camera (13.5 2020-05): COVID-19 tracking API 13.72019-092020-09
12 Production Stocks, more battery information; Enhancements: Books, Measure, Compass (12.1 2018-10): dual SIM for X models 12.5.22018-092019-10Final for iPhone 5S, iPhone 6/6 Plus
11 Production Augmented Reality, Machine Learning; Enhancements: Control Center, AppStore, Siri, Camera, Photo, Maps 11.4.12017-092018-09
10 Production Built-in icons hiding, Siri APPs integration, new lock/unlock, camera magnifier 10.3.32016-09Final for iPhone 5, 5C
9.3 Production 9.3.52016-032016-08Final for iPhone 4S
9.2 Production 9.2.12015-122016-01
9.1 Production iPad Pro support. New emoji, several fixes in many Apps 9.12015-10
9.0 Production iPhone 6S; Apple Pay; enhanched inApps: Siri, Notes, Maps, ...; Car Play 9.0.22015-09
8.4 Production Apple Music and Beat 1 Radio (8.4.1 2015-08): fixes 8.4.12015-062015-08
8.3 Production Upgrade APP: messages, WiFi, Keyboard with emoticons, Safari tabs, Control Center, ... 8.32015-04
8.2 Production Apple Watch support. Health App improvements. 8.22015-03
8.1 Production Mac integration (Yosemite): Instant Hotspot, SMS messages, iCloud. Apple Pay (US only), ...
Initial for iPad Air 2 and iPad Mini 3.
8 Production New keyboard, family sharing, improved multidevice sharing, health, new messaging interface, Apple Watch support, better security, ... 8.0.22014-09
7.1 Production Refined user interface, Siri listens as "walkie-talkie", CarPlay, HDR Photo on 5S, better responsiveness also on old devices. 7.1.22014-032014-06Final for iPhone 4
7.0 Production Control Center, AirDrop for iOS, and smarter multitasking. 64bit support for A7 for iPhone 5S. Touch ID. Over-the-air cellular download limit increased up to 100MB. (7.0.3): bug fixing (lockscreen, iMessage). (7.0.4): bug fixing
Programming for iOS 7 requires Xcode 5.0 which requires OS X 10.8.4
7.0.42013-09Compatible with iPhone 4 to iPhone 5x; iPod touch 5th; iPad 2, iPad Retina, iPad mini
6.0ProductionPassbook, FaceTime, Siri (italian too), Apple Maps (Google Maps were better), Panoramic Photos (iPhone 5 and 4S only). Based on Darwin kernel 13.0 6.1.62012-092014-02Final for iPhone 3GS
5.1ProductionFirst released on new iPad (3rd generation) 5.1.12012-032012-05Final for iPad 2
5.0ProductionFirst released on iPhone 4S. iCloud, Notification Center, Siri. Based on Darwin kernel 11.0. (5.0.1): better battery usage 5.0.12011-102011-11
4.3ProductionPerformance (Nitro JavaScript engine in Safari); iTunes upgrade; (4.3.3): reduced location cache (for privacy) 4.3.52011-032011-07
4.2Production All Apple A4 support; AirPlay, AirPrint (4.2.1): Final for iPhone 3G, iPad 2 initial release 4.2.1
2011-07Final for iPhone 3G
4.1ProductionMany bug fixes, Game Center, ... 4.12010-09
4.0Production Multitasking, iPhone 4, iAD, iBooks, ... Unsupported 1st gen. devices. Based on Darwin kernel 10.0 4.0.32010-06
3Production Compass, Cut&Paste, ... 3.1.3
3.2.2 iPad
2009-062010-03Final for first generation iPhone
2Production App Store, Certificate, IPsec VPN, Active Sync, ... 2.2.12008-072009-01
1ProductionFirst release for iPhone only. Based on Darwin kernel 9.0.
(1.1): iPod Touch, iTunes. (1.1.1): Many new features: TV out,

iOS device success depends mostly on APPs which are developed with a iOS SDK. iOS SDK Beta is available since 2008-03.
(Sources: DevCenter, Wikipedia): iOS 8.0 Golden Master (2014-09), iOS 7.1 (2014-03), iOS 7.0 Final (2013-09), iOS 6.1 (2013-01), iOS 6.0 Final (2012-09), iOS 5.1 Final (2012-03), iOS 5.0 Final (2011-10), iOS 4.3 Final (2011-03), iOS 4.2 Final (2010-11), iOS 4.1 Final (2010-09), 4.0 Final (2010-06), iPhone OS 3.2 iPad only (2010-04), 3.0 Final (2009-06), 2.2 Official Release (2008-11), 2.0 Official Release with App Store (2008-11), 2.0b2 with Interface Builder (2008-03), 1.2b1 (2008-03). iOS SDK is free but Xcode (the development environment) requires a subscription with an annual fee.

OS upgrade depends mainly on the model and is automatic. The following table reports the relations between iPhone models and iOS.
(Sources: Apple iPhone Wikipedia)

Date (from)
iOS release (initial)
iOS release (last)
iPhone 12 / 12 Pro2020-1014.1 current CPU A14 Bionic. 5G. LiDAR Scanner.
iPhone SE 2nd2020-0413.4current CPU A13 Bionic 6-core 64-bit, 4.7 display
iPhone 11 Pro/ Max2019-0913.0 current CPU A13 Bionic 6-core 64-bit, 3-lens, 5.85 / 6.46 display
iPhone 11 2019-0913.0 current CPU A13 Bionic 6-core 64-bit, 6.1 display, IP68
iPhone XR2018-1012.0 current Liquid Retina, eSIM
iPhone XS2018-0912.0 current 3D Touch, eSIM
iPhone X2017-1111.0 current A11 chip Esa-core, full screen, no home button, face ID, animoji, eSIM
iPhone 8 / 8Plus2017-0911.0 current A11 chip Esa-core, all glass, wireless charging, touch ID, IP67
iPhone 7 / 7Plus2016-0910.0 current A10 chip Quad-core, Water resistant, 2+1 camera on iPhone 7 Plus
iPhone SE2016-039.3current CPU 1.8 GHz Dual-core A9 64-bit, 4.0 display
iPhone 6S / 6SPlus2015-099.0 current CPU 1.8 GHz Dual-core A9 64-bit
iPhone 6 / 6Plus2014- Display 4.7, 5.5 for 6Plus, A8 chip
iPhone 5S2013- CPU 1.3 GHz Dual-core ARMv8s 64-bit
iPhone 5C2013- CPU 1.3 GHz Dual-core ARMv8s 64-bit
iPhone 52012- Display 4.0, CPU 1.3 GHz Dual-core ARMv7s, Lightning connector, nano SIM
iPhone 4S2011- CPU 1 GHz Cortex-A9, Bluetooth 4.0 LE
iPhone 42010- CPU 1 GHz Cortex-A8, Front camera, Retina display, micro SIM
iPhone 3GS2009- CPU 833 MHz Cortex-A8, Compass, Bluetooth 2.1
iPhone 3G 2008- GPS
iPhone2007- Display 3.5 3:2 480x320, 4-16 GB RAM, 620 MHz 32-bit ARM CPU, Quad band, Bluetooth 2.0


Android is an Open Source operating system for cellular phones developed by Google.
Android is based on Linux.
(Source: Android Studio Android version usage Wikipedia Version History)
Last release
Date (from)
Date (to)
11.0Android 11 Production API 30; chat bubbles, screen recorder, one-time permission, Android Auto 5Ghz WiFi 11.0.02020-09
10.0Android 10 Production API 29; Project mainline update, notification bubbles, background apps, biometric authentication, foldable phones, ... 10.0.02019-09
9.0Pie Production Linux Kernel 4.10, API 28; New user interface, adaptive battery, ... 9.0.02018-08
8.0Oreo Production API 26; Picture in picture, notification channels/dots, improved battery life, less background app activity, Google Play Protect, ... (8.1): API Level 27 8.1.02017-08
7.0Nougat Production API Level 24-25; Screen zoom, Emergency, DaydreamVR, Instant Apps, multi-windows support, ... 7.1.22016-08
6.0Marshmallow Production API Level 23; Doze power management, USB Type-C, fingerprint auth, new permission model, MIDI support. 6.0.12015-10
5.0Lollipop Production API Level 21-22; Andreoid Runtime (ART) instead of Dalvik, 64bit support, OpenGL ES 3.1, WebRTC, ...; Material design, better battery usage (Project Volta), multiple profile, per APP connection, ... (5.1): API Level 22 5.1.1
4.4KitKat Production API Level 19; Comprensive Memory Management (can run with only 512MB of RAM; APP awareness), Host Card Emulation for NFC transactions, Low-power consuption sensors, new WebView with HTML5, CSS3 and JavaScript full support, Printing framework, Full-screen mode, translucent UI, ... 4.4.42013-11
4.1Jelly BeanProductionAPI Level 16; Smoother and faster interface, offline voice recognition, notification, voice search. API Level 16.
(4.2): Faster, new camera app, API Level 17
(4.3): API 18
4.0Ice Cream SandwichProductionA Gingerbread+Honeycomb release: for both tablets and small mobiles. New supported devices: temperature and humidity. Additional USB and OTG support. (4.0.3): API Level 15 4.0.4Oct 2011
3.0HoneycombProductionOptimized for tablet; 3D widget; multicore support; Google Maps5, Google eBooks, Google Talk; Linux 2.6.36
3.1: API12; Optimized UI, upgraded std. apps (eg. browser with HTML5 support and faster zoom), USB Host support, strong WiFi support (also offline), external keyboard, mouse, joystick support
2.3GingerbreadProductionLinux 2.6.35; API9; Copy&Paste; XXL screen support; native support for: multiple cameras, additional sensors (eg. barometer), SIP VoIP, NFC (Near Field Communication)
(2.3.3): API Level 10
2.2FroyoProductionLinux 2.6.32; API8 rev.1; many optimizations, WiFi hotspot, Chrome, Flash 10.1. Can install Google Play Service that allows automatic update of user applications 2.2.22010-05
2.0EclairProductionLinux 2.6.29; API5-7 rev.2; new UI, new browser with HTML5 support (Obsoleted: 2.0/API5 rev.1, 2.0.1/API6 rev.1) 2.1-upd12009-10
1.6DonutProductionLinux 2.6.29; API4 rev.3; Better Android Market, integrated interface for camera, camcorder and gallery, WVGA, Voice search, CDMA/EVDO, 802.1x, VPN, T2S 1.62009-09
1.5CupCakeProductionLinux 2.6.27; API3 rev.4; new smart soft-keyboard, Bluetooth A2DP and AVCP 1.52009-04
1.1Petit FourFirst Official Release. API Level 2. Linux Kernel 2.6. 2009-02
1.0Released as Open Source with an Apache License. Linux Kernel 2.1. 2008-10
Upgrade depends mainly on models/firmware.

Available SDK (Java based with a cool Eclipse Plug-in) are: 4.0.3, 4.0, 3.2, 3.1, 3.0, 2.3.4, 2.3.3, 2.2 (May 2010), 2.1 (Jan 2010). Old ones were: 2.3 2.0.1 (Dec 2009), 2.0, 1.6, 1.5, 1.1.
AppDeveloper, the easy web interface development environment, is available as BETA since Jun 2010.

Microsoft Phone / Microsoft Mobile

Windows Mobile was the first Microsoft OS based on Windows CE for Pocket PCs and Smartphones.
Microsoft Phone replaced Windows Mobile on 2010 without any compatibility.
Nokia adopted Microsoft Phone platform on February 2011. Nokia Lumia 800 was the first model available since Nov 2011.
(Sources: Official site (10) Official site (8.1) Wikipedia)
Last release
Date (from)
Date (to)
Windows 10 Mobile Prod It is a Windows 10 OS branded for mobile devices. Not a successul release... 10.0.15063.5402016-03
Windows Phone 9Dev
Windows Phone 8Prod Based on Windows NT kernel. Multicore support, higher resolution screens (8.1 2014-04): IE 11, tab syncingCortana Voice Assistant (beta for US only) 8.1 upd 22012-10
Windows Phone 7Prod Metro interface; (NoDo 2011-03): CDMA support, Copy&Paste.
(Windows Phone 7.5 Mango 2011-05): IE9, multitasking
(Tango 2012): lower CPU requisites
(Windows Phone 7.8 2013-01): backport of some 8.0 features for HW not supporting the new release
Windows Mobile 6.5OldBased on Windows CE 6.5.320072010


Amazon sell two different kind of device: Book Readers and tablets.
Kindle is an eReader with eInk screen. Only simple applications can be hosted on them.
The development environment is called Kindle Development Kit (KDK) for active content for E Ink Kindles

The second kind of device is Kindle Fire. It is a standard tablet with Android OS.
Kindle Fire applications are hosted on a different market (Amazon Appstore for Android) than Google Play.
The development environment is the standard Android Eclipse enviroment with some differences.
See the Amazon Appstore Developer Program for details.
(Source Amazon Kindle publishing )
Date (from)
Kindle E-reader5.13.4Kindle / Kindle Oasis / Kindle Paperwhite 10th Generation
Kindle Fire7.3.1.7HD8 /Plus 10th Gen., HD 10 9th Gen., Fire 7 9th Gen., HD 8 8th Gen.
Kindle Oasis5.9.29th Generation Kindle Oasis2017
Kindle Fire HD Generation Kindle Fire HD2017
Kindle Voyage5.6.2.1New model: automatic light, page turn. Kindle Voyage2015
Kindle Paperwhite5.4.5.12nd Generation. (2015-06): 300 dpi, Bookerly font Kindle Paperwhite 2nd2012
Kindle Paperwhite5.4.4.1Frontlight Kindle Paperwhite2012
Kindle Fire HD 8.9"8.1.3 Kindle Fire HD2012-09
Kindle Fire HD 7"7.2.1Android Ice Cream Sandwich (4.0.3) Kindle Fire HD2012-09
Kindle Fire 2nd10.1.3 Kindle Fire 2nd2012-09
Kindle Fire6.3.1Android Gingerbread (2.23)
Social Sharing, Movie rental upd. (6.2.1) Bug fixing
Kindle Fire2011
4.1.0Improved fonts, complex layout support, parental control. (4.0.1) Smooth Page refresh Kindle 42011
Kindle Touch5.1.2Bug fixing (5.1) Kindle format 8, TTS Kindle Touch 2011 (US only)
Kindle Keyboard3.4Personal documents; (3.4) Parental control Kindle 32010
Kindle DX2.5Zoom on PDF, post on Facebook and Twitter Kindle DX2009
Kindle 22.5Zoom on PDF, post on Facebook and Twitter Kindle 22009
Kindle 11.2 Kindle 12007

Update is automatic with WhisperNet (WiFi).


There are several development platforms for RIM (Research In Motion) Blackberry Smartphones:
RIM Smartphone development architectures

Ubuntu Phone

Ubuntu Phone (aka Ubuntu Touch) has been announced on 2 February 2013 by Canonical.
(Source: Ubuntu Wikipedia)
Last release
Date (from)
Date (to)
Ubuntu PhonePreview 14.02013-022017-04

Firefox OS

Boot to Gecko is the original project launched on July 2011.
Firefox OS has been announced on July 2012 by Mozilla.
(Source: Firefox OS Wikipedia)
Last release
Date (from)
Date (to)
Firefox OS 2.0 Production 2.220142015-04
Firefox OS 1.0Production 1.32013-02

Samsung Smart TV SDK

I know Smart-TV it's not a Mobile Phone... but this section is the nearest
(Source Samsung Developer Forum)
Last release
Date (from)
Date (to)
5Production+Platform TV 2014. (5.1 2014-04) 5.12014-01
4.1Production Platform TV Year: 2011, 2012, 2013 2013-04
4.0ProductionLinux and Mac OS partial support (less functionalities and requires VirtualBox to run the emulator). Gesture events (2013 only). Platform TV Year: 2011, 2012, 2013 2013-01
3.5ProductionEclipse IDE added. (3.5.1): In-App Ads Platform TV Year: 2010, 2011, 2012 3.5.22012-06
2.5Production Platform TV Year: 2010, 2011 2.5.12011-08
1.5Production Platform TV Year: 2010 1.5102010-09


VMware gives the possibility to install different operating systems
on the same HW. Thanks to VMware these features, once available only on Enterprise System
such as mainframes or partitionable Unix, are available on commodity Hardware.
They offer many products, most common ones are:
VMware ESX and ESXi (Enterprise products for vCenter on bare metal), VMware Server (Free), VMware Workstation (cool desktop tool), ...
(Sources: VMware Wikipedia)
Last release
Date (from)
Date (to)
ESXi 6.7ProductionvCenter Server Appliance, Instant Clone API, ESXi Quick Boot, ... 6.7 Upd22018-042021-11
ESXi 6.5ProductionPhoton OS, Proactive HA, quaratine mode, HA Orchestrated Restart, REST API, VM encryption, ... 6.5 Upd12016-112021-11
ESXi 6.0Production Up to 64 nodes and 8K VMs, larger VMs (128 vCPU, 4TB RAM), VVol, FT snapshot, vMotion across vCenter, ... 6.0 Upd22015-032020-03
ESXi 5.5Production Expanded vGPU Support, Support for 62 TB VMDK, QoS Tagging, ... 5.5 Upd32013-092018-09
ESXi 5.1Production Larger VMs (up to 64 vCPU, up to 1TB RAM), new disk format optimized for VDI, vSphere vMotion, vSphere Replication 5.1 Upd32012-092016-08
ESXi 5.0ProductionESXi only. Advanced Memory Management. Optimized Device Drivers. PowerCLI+enhanced vCLI. ESXi Shell 5.0 Upd32011-082016-08
ESXi 4.1Production No service console. PowerCLI+vCLI. Partial SNMP support 4.1 Upd320102014
ESX 4.1ProductionLast ESX release 4.1 U220102014
ESX 4Production Up to 64 hosts CPU in Cluster; Host up to 1TB RAM, 64 CPUs, 512 VM; Guest up to 255GB RAM, 8 vCPUs 4.0 Upd420092014
ESX 3.5Production Both ESX and ESXi. Guest up to 4 vCPUs 3.5 Upd520072010 (2013 ext)
ESX 3 Unsupported One Step P2V Convert tool, Memory management enhancements (>2.5 GB RAM), boots from initrd 3.0.3 U120062008 (2011 ext)
ESX 2 Unsupported Boot from Linux, then S90vmware loads vmkernel 2.5.520022007 (2010 ext)
GSX 1Unsupported 1.52001
ESX is available up to 4.1. ESXi is available since 3. Basic ESXi features are free (no vCenter Server license).
VMware vSphere can manages clouds of ESX and ESXi servers.

Last release
Date (from)
Date (to)
VMware Server 2.0ProductionWeb interface (tomcat 6 based), 64-bit support, Volume Shadow Copy, VMI support 2.0.2
VMware Server 1.0Production 1.0.102006
GSX Server 3Unsupported More security. Serveral new OS supported 3.2.1
GSX Server 2Unsupported 2.5.2
Limited functionality but... FREE!

Last release
Date (from)
Date (to)
Workstation 12ProductionDirectX 10, OpenGL 3.3, IPv6 NAT12.1.02015-08
Workstation 11ProductionGuest support: Ubuntu 14.10, Windows 10, RH/CentOS 711.1.22014-12
Workstation 10ProductionUp to 16 vCPUs, SSD pass-through10.0.72013-09
Workstation 9ProductionUSB 3.0. Guest support: Ubuntu 12.04, Windows 8, Windows Server 20129.02012-08
Workstation 8ProductionRequires x64 CPU. Shared Virtual Machines8.02011-09
Workstation 7ProductionMore than 2 Host CPU supported, WDDM->Windows Aero; Windows7, Windows Server 2008 R27.0.12009-10
Workstation 6.5ProductionMore guest and host supported both 32 and 64bit; several performance improvements 2008-9
Workstation 6Production USB 2.0, Multiple monitor display, VM Record/Replay, Windows Vista, Integrated Virtual Debugger (Visual Studio, Eclipse), Automation APIs (VIX API 1.1) 6.0.22007
Workstation 5Unsupported 5.52005
Workstation 4Unsupported 4.51999
Workstation 3Unsupported 3.11999
Workstation 2Unsupported 1999
Workstation 1Unsupported First cool virtualization product! 11999

VMware is great for consolidation and server upgrade!


VirtualBox is a free virtualization environment developed by Oracle (since 2010).
VirtualBox has got a strong reputation for performance and ease of use.
VirtualBox requires an host operating system and supports many of them: Linux, MS-Windows, OS X, Solaris, ...
The optional VirtualBox Extension Pack increases some guest specific features (eg. better USB, video support)
(Sources: Wikipedia Official Site)
Last release
Date (from)
Date (to)
6.1ProductionSupport for importing and exporting virtual machines from/to Oracle Cloud Infrastructure, shared clipboard, nexted HW-virtualization on Intel
Desupport: Software based virtualization
6ProductionNew GUI, OCI (Oracle Cloud Interface) integration to export a VM in cloud, new API, VRDE audio attach/detach support 6.0.222018-122020-05
5ProductionParavirtualization, USB3 support, bidirectional drag&drop. (5.0.40 2017-04): last 5.0, no longer supported
(5.1 2016-07): better performances, improved logging. (5.1.38 2018-05): last 5.1, no longer supported
(5.2 2017-10): export to Oracle Cloud, unattended guest installation.
4ProductionSun acquired by Oracle. GNU License (GPL v2). (4.0.36 2015-11): last 4.0
(4.1 2011-07) Aero support, VM clone. (4.1.44 2015-11): last 4.1
(4.2 2012-09) VM dynamic settings, VM groups. (4.2.36 2015-11): last 4.2
(4.3 2013-10) touch support, video capture.
3Production(3.2) OS X support3.2 2009
2ProductionInnotek acquired by Sun2.22008
1ProductionInitially developed by Innotek GmbH. PUEL license1.62007

Several VM templates are available on


Xen is a virtualization environment developed initialy by the University of Cambridge,
later on by XenSource which had been acquired by Citrix on 2007...
the Community develop Xen as open software (GPL2).
Xen has a very large installed base (eg. Amazon Web Services, Rackspace) and many commercial products are based on it.
(Sources: New features list (4.14) Xen Versions Old Releases features Wikipedia Git)
Last release
Date (from)
Date (to)
4Stable Scalability: up to 128 vcpu per guest, 1TB RAM, 128 CPU per host; linux 2.6.31 on dom0; Memory page sharing; Xen Cloud Platform; online disk resize; IOMMU and VGA pass-through (VT-d, AMD IOMMU).
(4.1) linux kernel on dom0, more than 255 processors.
(4.2) up to 4095 host processors and up to 512 guest processors; XL (xenlight) toolstack instead of xm/xend command
(4.3) ARM support (experimental), Open vSwitch. Desupport: x86-32bit hypervisor, ia64 hypervisor
(4.4) libvirt support for libxl, new event channel interface, nested virtualization (on Intel), ARM stable support. x86 Host limits: 4095 CPUs, 16TB RAM; x86 PV Guest limits: 512 CPUs, 512GB RAM; x86 HVM Guest limits: 128 CPUs, 1TB RAM.
(4.5) libxl replacement for phyton xend. Several processor specific updates for better performance, security and larger support.
(4.6) Several quality and security fixes: Migration v2, scalability improvements, ARM support, Xen’s Virtual Machine Introspection (VMI) improvements for security, ...
(4.7) Improved live migrations, performances and workload. ARM and Intel Xeon support. x86 PV Guest: >1TB RAM
(4.8) Faster big domain creation, new Credit2 scheduler, HVM USB passthrough.
(4.9) Security hardening, code quality, PCI Passthrough on ARM; for automotive and embedded: “null” scheduler, new ABIs for sharing devices between VM.
(4.10) PVHv2 DomU (PVHv2 requires OS support available since Linux 4.11)
3StableHVM support: unmodified Windows and legacy Linux guests;
(3.1) XenAPI 1.0, 32bit guest on 64bit hypervisor, HVM save/restore/migrate;
(3.2) device pass-through, better network performances;
(3.3) full x86 real-mode emulation, power management (P & C states);
(3.4) RAS (offline CPU, memory), power management (deep sleep, frequency/voltage controls)
2Old Live Migration. Copy-on-write LVM volumes or loopback files. Network enanchements: arbitrary firewalling, bridging and routing of guest virtual network interfaces. 2.0.72004
1Old First public stable release of the Xen virtual machine monitor for x86, and port of Linux 2.4.22 as a guest OS by Cambridge University. Xen uses para-virtualization which is very fast. 2003

Many commercial products and solutions are based on Xen Hypervisor. Oracle VM and Citrix XenServer are the most important ones.
Many internet providers use Xen. Among others: Amazon EC2, Rackspace Cloud, IBM SoftLayer, ...

Oracle VM

Oracle VM (OVM) is an Enterprise virtualization environment based on Xen developed and supported by Oracle.
The architecture is composed by one Oracle VM Manager that manages one ore more Oracle VM Servers (Xen) 
throught an agent hosted on dom0.
VM guest can be Linux, which natively supports Xen, or Windows which require PV Drivers for better performances.
(Sources: Oracle Doc Downloads Guest Support HW CL Blog )
Last release
Date (from)
Date (to)
3.4Stable Xen Hypervisor 4.4, UEK4 kernel for Dom0. Storage live migration, Virtual Appliance support, Ksplice kernel upgrade, VNC and Serial Console automatic deploy, OVM Manager UI better performances, SNMP monitoring, P2V utility, 256 guest vCPU, UEFI and FCoE boot support, ...
(3.4.2 2016-09): Xen 4.4.4, UEK4 upd2, NVMe support, PVHVM hot memory modification (3.4.3 2017-05): Microsoft Windows Clustering support; upgraded kernel, packages and MySQL; better RAID support, Manager performance enhancements, CentOS 7 officially supported (3.4.4 2017-08): UEK R4 U4 (Skylake processors support), July 2017 Critical Patch Update for all the components (3.4.5 2018-06): UEK R4 U7, OL 6.9, new balance server policy, TLSv1.2, April 2018 Critical Patch Updates. Deprecation: paravirtualized guests (PVM) guests, management of OVM Server 3.2.1x for x86; VM SOAP API, some Oracle VM Utilities scripts, HugePages. (3.4.6 2018-11): October 2018 CPU, move running VM to another repository. Desupport: paravirtualized guests (PVM) guests, management of OVM Server 3.2.1x for x86. ( 2019-06): April 2018 CPU and additional security patches. ( 2019-07): CVE-2019-2729. ( 2019-12): Guest support: OL/RH/CentOS 8.x, Microsoft Server 2019; October 2019 Critical Patch Update ( 2020-06): Export to OCI (Oracle Cloud Infrastructure); April 2020 Critical Patch Update
3.3StableOVM Manager: MySQL 5.6 EE, Java 7, WebLogic 12c; OVM Server: Xen Hypervisor 4.3, OEL 6 with UEK3 for Dom0. New features: Xeb Services API (both SOAP and REST), new event model, Huge Page Support, SSL for Agent, enhancements in the network architecture, better and certified Windows PV drivers, new JavaScript/HTML5 console, better SPARC support (iSCSI, FC, ZFS, local disk, HA, bonding, ), ... OVM 3.3 can be integrated in a OpenStack Cloud (preview feature). (3.3.2 2015-02) Available on MOS. Many bug fixes (3.3.3 2015-07) Available on MOS. Bug and security fixes, FCoE support, more CNA support, ... (3.3.4 2016-03) Available on MOS. Bug, performance (eg. networking) and security fixes. kernel-uek-3.8.13-118. 3.3.52014-07
3.2StableXen Hypervisor 4.1.3. MySQL on Manager (instead of Oracle XE for Simple install). SPARC Agent support. New CLI.
Better GUI with more information (eg. health tab, tagging). Hot cloning. Direct VM import. Serial console.
(3.2.6 2013-10) Xen and Dom0 linux kernel upgrade
(3.2.7 2013-12) Many fixes, some related to upgrade from previous versions
(3.2.8 2014-04) Many fixes, API SDK in the installer
(3.2.9 2014-12) Available on MOS. Bug fixes
3.1StableXen Hypervisor 4.1.2. Oracle Unbreakable Enterprise Kernel 2 for Dom0.
LUN/OCFS2 resize, Virtual Machine Templates, hot add vCPU, Oracle VM Servers discover, multi-path SAN boot (KO since 3.0), ...
3.0StableXen Hypervisor 4.0. Dom0 uses Oracle Unbreakable Enterprise Kernel. Better EM integration.
Distributed Resource Scheduling (DRS), Distributed Power Management (DPM), ADF user interface. Desupport: user roles, file based deployment.
(3.0.3 2012-01): Anti-Affinity Support, configuration wizards, live migration assistant
2.2OldXen 3.4
(2.2.1) large farm support (up to 32 nodes), HA enhancements
(2.2.2) driver and software update (eg. OCFS 1.4.8, nic drivers), vmpinfo
2.1Old Xen based virtualization platform with a web console management
(2.1.1) bug fixing, guest features: preferred server, boot source
(2.1.2) larger HW support, High Availability, guest and hypervisor debugger, faster I/O, P2V and V2V
(2.1.5) stability fixings, documentation update, Web Services API
2.0Old 2.02007-11


KVM is an Open Source virtualization environment.
KVM is available as an external module since 2.6.16 and
from release 2.6.20 it's included in mainline Linux kernel.
(Sources: Official site Guest support)
Last release
Date (from)
Date (to)
2.6.30StableFirst kvm-kmod-xx release2.6.30.12009-6
kvm-88StableLast kvm-xxkvm-882009-7
kvm-12StableLinux 2.6.20 kvm-122007-01


Proxmox is an Open Source virtualization environment who manages both LXC containers and KVM full virtualization.
Proxmox has features similar to commercial products: the GUI is easy to use and it supports node clustering for HA.
(Sources: Official site Wikipedia)
Last release
Date (from)
Date (last)
6.0 Production Debian Buster 10.0, Kernel 5.0, QEMU 4.0, LXC 3.1
(6.1 2019-12): Debian Buster 10.2, Linux kernel 5.3, QEMU 4.1.1, LXC 3.2, ZFS 0.8.2; more datacenters via GUI, HA stack improvements, Fedora 31, CentOS 8, and Ubuntu 19.10 support, ...
5.0 Production Debian Stretch 9.0, Kernel 4.10.15, QEMU 2.9, LXC 2.0.8, live migration with local storage
(5.1 2017-10): Debian Stretch 9.2, Linux kernel 4.13.3, QEMU 2.9.1, LXC 2.1, ZFS 0.7.2
(5.3 2018-12): Debian Stretch 9.6, Linux kernel 4.15.18, QEMU 2.12.1, LXC 3.0.2, ZFS 0.7.12
(5.4 2019-04): Debian Stretch 9.8, Linux kernel 4.15.18, QEMU 2.12.1, LXC 3.1.0, ZFS 0.7.13
4.0ProductionLinux kernel 4.2, Debian Jessie 8.2, LXC instead of OpenVZ, IPv6, new HA
(4.1 2015-12): Linux kernel 4.2.6, LVM thin support (preview), systemd
(4.2 2016-04): Linux kernel 4.4.6, Debian Jessie 8.4, HA improvments, LVM thin
(4.3 2016-09): Linux kernel 4.4.19, GUI improvements, VM wizard better settings
(4.4 2016-12): Linux kernel 4.4.35, LXC improvements, new dashboards, HA GUI
3.0StableVM templates, cloning
(3.2 3.3): SPICE, HTML5 GUI, firewall, ZFS plugin
2.0StableNew GUI, HA, RESTful API2.32012-032013-03
1.0StableFirst stable release. KVM and OpenVZ live migration1.92008-102011-09
0.xDevelProxmox Virtual Environment (VE) with OpenVZ and KVM0.92008-042008-07


oVirt is an Open Source virtualization environment to manage KVM virtualization.
(Sources: Official site RPM Repository Release Notes Wikipedia)
Last release
Date (from)
Date (last)
4.0 Production Red Hat / CentOS 7.2. 4.0.6
3.0ProductionFirst Open Source release based on Red Hat code. oVirt Engine on JBoss AS7, Python SDK, Fedora oVirt Node 3.6.72012-022016-06

Oracle Linux Virtualization Manager

Oracle Linux Virtualization Manager (OLVM) is a virtualization environment based on oVirt for Oracle Linux.
(Sources: GA Official Doc What's new)
Last release
Date (from)
Date (last)
4.2 Production (4.2.8 2019-06) First Oracle release with UEK 5, OL 7.6, oVirt 4.2.8. (2019-10): Hard Partitioning documented.
(4.3.6 2020-03) Self hosted deployment. OL/RH/CentOS 8, SUSE 12 SP5, SUSE 15 SP1, MS-Windows Server 2019 support, virt-v2v utility. (4.3.10 2021-02) OL 7 upd 9 with UEK6 support


Docker simplifies the deployment of applications inside software containers.
Docker is written in Go.

(Source: Official Site GitHub)

Last release
Date (from)
Date (to)
1.0ProductionEnhanced security for LXC. (1.10 2016-02): removed LXC support (1.11.1-beta12 2016-05): native client for Mac OSX and MS Windows
(17.3): montly release cycle based on 1.13.1 with montly and quaterly channels
0.1 Old Released as Open Source. (0.8.0 2014-02) Mac official support. (0.9 2014-03): native exec uses libcontainer. 0.12.02013-03
Old Developed in dotCloud as internal project to provide PaaS with LXC, libvirt or systemd-nspawn containers.


Veritas Cluster Server [now Veritas InfoScale Availability] is a well known cluster environment.

(Sources: Official Site Support)

Last release
Date (from)
Date (to)
Date (EOSL)
7.0ProductionVeritas Infoscale Availability 7.0.1


6.2ProductionSupported OS: AIX 6.1, AIX 7.1, RH 6, RH 7, SUSE 11, Solaris 10, Solaris 11.
(6.2.1 2015-05): SUSE 12 and Oracle Linux 7 (OL 7) with Unbreakable Enterprise Kernel Release 3 (UEK R3).
6.1Production 6.12014-042019-12
6.0Production 6.0.42012-092018-122020-12
5.1 Production Packaging and installation changes. Agent upgrades 5.1 SP220102016-122018-12
5.0 Production Cluster Management Console 5.0.120062014-082017-07
4.0 Desupported (4.1 2005-03): Security, NFS lock failover 4.12004-012012-062013-08
3.x Desupported 3.5

Veritas developed also VxFS, VxVM and the Veritas Storage Foundation product package. In 2005 Veritas and Symantec merged.


Pacemaker is The Open Source cluster resource manager.
Pacemaker can be used with Corosync, Heartbeat, and CMAN.

(Sources: Pacemaker ReleaseMatrix )

Last release
Date (from)
Date (last)
2.0Production 2.0.22018-072019-06
1.1ProductionCorosync 2.x support. (1.1.15 2016-06): better integration with CMAN 1.1.212010-012019-06
1.0Deprecated 1.0.132008-102013-02
0.7Deprecated 0.7.32008-062008-09
0.6Deprecated 0.6.72008-012008-12
0.0DeprecatedDeveloped by Red Hat and Suse with a considerable support from the community 2004


Corosync is an Open Source Cluster Engine.

(Sources: Corosync Releases )

Last release
Date (from)
Date (last)
3ProductionCameback branch. 3.0.22012-042018-04
2ProductionNeedle branch. (2.4.0 2016-06): Qdevice 2.4.42012-042018-04
1 Archived Flatiron branch. 1.4.92008-102017-12


HAProxy is a fast and well known software reverse proxy by Willy Tarreau.

(Sources: Official Site)

Last release
Date (from)
Date (last)
Date (to)
2.3Production 2.3.02020-112020-112022-03
2.2Production LTS Runtime certificate and crtlist management, dynamic error pages, logging over TCP, optimization for lower latency 2.2.52020-072020-112025-06
2.1 Production 2.1.102019-112020-112021-03
2.0 Production LTS 2.0.192019-062020-112024-06
1.9 Unmaintained 1.9.162017-112020-072020-06
1.8Production LTSMulti-threading, HTTP/2, cache, on-the fly server addition/removal, seamless reloads, DNS SRV, hardware SSL engines, ... 1.8.272017-112020-112022-12
1.7Critial fixesAdded server hot reconfiguration, content processing agents, multi-type certs, ... 1.7.122016-112019-102021-12
1.6Critial fixesAdded DNS resolution support, HTTP connection multiplexing, full stick-table replication, stateless compression, desupport for long deprecated keywords, ... 1.6.152015-102019-102020-12
1.5 Unmaintained Added SSL, IPv6, keep-alive, DDoS protection, HTTP/1.1 compression, ... 1.5.192014-062016-122016-12
1.4UnmaintainedClient-side keep-alive, source-based stickiness, support for HTTP authentication, server management from the CLI ... 1.4.272010-052016-03
1.3UnmaintainedContent switching, more load-balancing algorithms, transparent proxy, ... 1.3.2820062016-03
1.2UnmaintainedPerformance improvements 1.2.1820062008-05
1.1UnmaintainedVery stable 1.1.3420022006-01
1.0UnmaintainedFirst version 1.0.22001-12

Cloud computing

Distribuited architectures and virtual enviroments are not new (eg. OSs; Physical/Logical Partitioning, Workload Manager, Terminal Server, Client/Server, ...; Tarantella, Citrix, ...; Cygwin, Wine, ...; ...) they were available since the beginning of IT.
But now Public or Private Clouds can handle complex services:

For innovation, completeness and time to market Amazon Web Services (AWS) and their APIs are THE reference in Cloud Computing.

On-premise deployment opens the possibility to hybrid cloud... In the following we list some of the IaaS solutions that can be deployed On-Premise: vSphere, XenServer / XCP; OpenStack, CloudStack, OpenNebula, Eucaliptus.


Initialy called VMware Infrastructure 4 (VI 4), vSphere manage VMware ESX/ESXi with many Internet and Cloud features.
vSphere 5 is very comprehensive and widely used.
(Source: Official Site)
Last release
Date (from)
Date (to)
5StablevShield 5, Recovery Manager 5, vCloud Director 1.5
5 Update 1 (2012-03): guest customization for new OS (eg. Windows 8, Ubuntu 11.10, ...)
5.5 upd 3e2011-8
4Stable Many Internet and cloud features, very stable
(Update1 2009-11): Windows 7 and Windows Server 2008 R2 support
(4.1 2010-08): parallel vmotion (4.1 Update1): RHEL 6, RHEL 5.6, Ubuntu 10.10, ... support
4.1 upd 12009-5

The cloud architecture is managed by vCloud Director and can be programmed by vCloud REST API.

(Source: Official Site)

Last release
Date (from)
Date (to)
1.5 1.52011-9
1.0 1.0.12010-8
0.9 0.92010-4

Xen Cloud Platform / XenServer

XCP stands for Xen Cloud Platform.
XCP and XenServer were closely related and now they are the same product mantained by Citrix.
(Sources: XCP XenServer Xen Wikipedia)
XCP Version
Last release
Date (from)
Date (to)
7.2ProductionDesupport: Windows Vista, XP, 2003, CentOS 4.x, RHEL 4.x, SLES 10 7.2.02015-052018-03
7.1ProductionXen 4.7.1. LTRS (Long Term Service Release). 7.1.02017-022022-08
2027-08 EOES
7.0ProductionXen 4.6.1. 7.0.02016-052021-05
6.5ProductionXen 4.4.1. 6.5 SP12015-012018-06
6.26.2ProductionXCP merged with the product XenServer. Monitoring pack integrated. Xen 4.1.5. Limit for VM: 16 vCPU, 7 VDI, 7 vNIC, 128GB RAM, 2TB LVM, 2TB NFS. Limit for Host: 160 CPU, 12000 vCPU, 650 concurrent VMs, 1TB RAM. 6.2 SP12013-062018-06
1.66.1Beta2Xen 4.1.2, Storage XenMotion, performance and scalability enhancements, IPv6 1.62012-10
1.56.0Beta4Xen 4.1, vSwitch as default stack; AP NIC bonding on vSwitch; Ubuntu guest, SLES 10 SP4 support. Will remain Beta 1.52012-02
1.15.6 FP2ProductionMany fixes; IntelliCache; support for RHEL6; reset-on-boot disks; full SCSI support 1.12011-07
1.05.6 SP1Production1.12011-02
0.55.6 Prod 0.52010-07


OpenStack is an Open Source Project launched in 2010 by Rackspace and NASA to provide IaaS software.
Many important companies have joined the OpenStack project since then.
OpenStack modular architecture has several components: Nova (computing), Swift (Object Storage), ...
OpenStack fully supports XenSever and KVM while there is a limited support for VMware and Hyper-V.
(Sources: Official site Releases Wikipedia)
Date (from)
Date (to)
WallabyDev 2021-04
VictoriaDev 2020-10
UssuriDev 2020-05
TrainDev 2019-10
SteinMantainedAdded components: freezer, monasca-events-api, placement, searchlight 2019-04
RockyExt MantAdded components: Cyborg, ec2-api, Masakari, Qinling 2018-08
QueensExt MantAdded components: blazar, ceilometer-powervm, karbor, octavia, storlets, tricircle, zun 2018-02
Pike Ext Mant Add storage to an existing Cinder volume without shutdown, Ironic and Neutron Integration, Live VM Migration. 2017-08
Ocata Ext Mant Stability, scalability, and performance of the core compute and networking services. 2017-02
NewtonEOLFocused on high availability, self-healing, and versatility for both bare metal, virtualization and containers. Internal component Kolla (containers for internal services). Added components: aodh, cloudkitty, congress, freezer, mistral, monasca-api, monasca-log-api, murano, panko, senlin, solum, tacker, vitrage, Watcher 2016-102017-10
Mitaka EOL Added components: Magnum (Containers) 2016-042017-04
Liberty EOL Added components: Zaqar (Messaging), Manila (Shared FS), Designate (DNS), Barbican (Key Manager), Searchlight 2015-102016-11
Kilo EOL Added components: Ironic (Bare Metal) 2015-042016-05
Juno EOL Added components: Sahara (Data Processing) 2014-102015-12
Icehouse EOL Added components: Trove (Database) 2014-042015-07
Havana EOL Added components: Heat (Orchestration), Ceilometer (Telemetry). Quantum component has been renamed as Neutron. 2013-102014-09
Grizzly EOL 2013-042014-03
Folsom EOL Added components: Quantum (Networking), Cinder (Block Storage) 2012-092013-11
Essex EOL Added components: Horizon (Dashboard), Keystone (Identity Service) 2012-042013-05
DiabloEOL 2011-092013-05
Cactus EOL 2011-04
Bexar EOL Added components: Glance (Image Service) 2011-02
Austin EOL Based on NASA's Nebula and Rackspace Cloud File Platform.
Availabile components: Nova (Computing), Swift (Object Storage)


CloudStack was initially developed as proprietary software by
The software become Open Source in several steps, released under GNU by,
then Citrix acquired and donated CloudStack to Apache, and now it is a project by Apache SF.
CloudStack has a broad support for Hypervisors: XenServer, VMware, KVM, Hyper-V, Oracle-VM, ... bare metal!
(Sources: Official site Wikipedia)
Last release
Date (from)
Date (to)
4.0StableBy Apache Software Foundation (4.2): convergence with Citrix CloudPlatform. 4.13.02012-11
3.0StableSwift (S3 like) 2012-02
2.0Stable 2.2.14


OpenNebula is a toolkit to manage IaaS supporting different technologies.
(Sources: Official site Wikipedia)
Last release
Date (from)
Date (last)
5.0Production 5.8.42016-062019-07
4.0Production 4.14.22013-052015-11
3.0 Production 3.8.52011-102013-10
2.0 Production 2.2.12010-102011-06
1.0Production 1.42008-072009-12


Eucaliptus is an cloud environment that can manage Xen, KVM and VMware
virtual resources to build an IaaS. The interface is 100% AWS compatible.
Eucaliptus is Open Source but they also offer a paided subscription for support.
(Sources: Official site Compatibility Matrix Wikipedia)
Last release
Date (from)
Date (to)
4.0Stable 4.4.52014-082018-12
3.0Stable 3.4.22012-02
2.0Stable 2.02010-08
1.6StableMultiple clusters support, components (cloud, walrus, nc, cc) can be installed on different machines.
(1.6.2 2010-02): better scalability, S3 server logging API (beta), Windows Brocker (beta). Available in Debian.
1.0Old (1.1): URL query interface, network control configuration, in memory DB (1.2): RPM, image caching (1.3): EC2 support
(1.4): Walrus (Amazon S3 compatible)
(1.5.1): Elastic Block Store (EBS), Available in Ubuntu
(1.5.2): pre-packaged images


Browsers allow the navigation of the World Wide Web. Enjoy!
StatCounter Browser Usage - Legacy StatCounter Browser Usage - Current
(Source: StatCounter Browser StatCounter Browser )

Browsers' versions always change... please do not put Your blame on me if the following tables are not updated!

Firefox (Mozilla)
(Sources: Mozilla Wikipedia)

Last release
Date (from)
Date (to)
FutureDevelopment channels: Beta, Aurora, Nightly
11.0ProductionPage Inspector, Add-on Sync; Better HTML5 support (muted and loop attribute for audio and video); (12.0 2012-04): line numbers in page source (13.0 2012-06): feature full Page Inspector, most visited site on new tab opening, SPDY protocol (13.0.1 2012-06): Many fixes (14.0 2012-07): URL auto-completion, stability fixes (15.0 2012-08): Silent update, debugger, SPDY (16.0 2012-10): Web Apps (basic support), HTML5 (unprefixed CSS Animations, TAG meter, ...) (29.0 2014-05): New menu (45.0 2016-03): ESR (52.0 2017-03): Removed support for Netscape Plugin API (NPAPI): Java, Silverlight, and Acrobat are no longer supported. ESR (57.0 2017-11): Quantum. Fast! (60.0 2018-03): ESR 82.0.32013-102020-11
> 4.0Production Rapid release like Chrome! (5.0 2011-06) HTML5, CSS, security, WebGL, ...
(6.0 2011-08): domain highlight, scratchpad, ...
(7.0 2011-09): MemShink, no http:// in URL, ...
(9.0 2011-12): many bug fixes, ...
(10.0 2012-01): ESR, HTML5 full video API, style inspector, ...
4.0Production Gecko 2.0 Engine (HTML5, CSS3, WebM, WebGL); Enhanchements: Speed, Account Manager and Security, New interface, Sync; Acid3 97/100 4.0.12011-03
3.6ProductionSkins (Personas)3.6.262010-01
3.5ProductionHTML 5 (audio, video tag), better performances: TraceMonkey (JavaScript), native JSON, ...3.5.192009-06
3.0ProductionNew download Manager, ACID23.0.142008-06
2ProductionSpell check, anti-phishing2.02006-10

Since Firefox 10 has also an Extended Support Release (ESR) with freezed functionalies. A Firefox ESR lasts for 54 weeks. Latest releases: Firefox 10 ESR, .., Firefox 45 ESR, Firefox 52 ESR, Firefox 60.5.0 ESR,. (Sources: Firefox ESR FAQ Download)

Tor Browser is based on ESR Firefox releases; Tor (The Onion Router) provides anonymous communication through tunnels between thousand of relays. Latest browser version is 10.0.2 (2020-10 based on Mozilla Firefox 78.4.0esr).

IE: Internet Explorer (Microsoft)
(Sources: Wikipedia)

Last release
Date (from)
Date (to)
11.0 ProductionMany HTML5 features. Fast.11.0.1552013-102019-10Windows 8.1
10.0 ProductionBetter standard support: HTML5 Drag&Drop, CSS3 gradients. Vista not supported10.0.9200.165212012-10Windows 2012 Server, Windows 8
9.0ProductionStandard compliance: CSS 3, Acid3 95/100... Faster JScript Engine (Chakra); Pinned Site, secure download; (2011-09) Acid3 100/100. XP not supported9.0.262011-03
8.0ProductionSome web standard compliance (ACID2), at least!8.0.7601.175142009Windows 7
7.0ProductionTabs, anti-phishing,PNG alpha7.0.6002.180052006Windows Vista
6.0ProductionW3C compliance; (SV1): Popup blocker6.0 SV32001Windows XP; (SV1): Windows Server 2003
5.0ProductionXML/XSL, favicons5.51999Windows 2000
4.0ProductionMS-DOM4.01 SP21997Windows 98
3.0ProductionVBScript, JScript, CSS, Java3.031996
2.0ProductionSSL, cookies2.011995Windows NT 4.0
1.0Production1.51995Windows95 Plus!

Microsoft Edge (Microsoft)
(Sources: Wikipedia)

Last release
Date (from)
Date (to)
40 Production Advanced Tab Management, support for: CSS Custom Properties, EPUB file format, WebRTC 1.0, ... 44.18362.387.02017-042019-09
38 Production Default browser for Windows 10. based on EdgeHTML has a good support for HTML5. Dropped support for ActiveX and Browser Helper Objects 38.143932016-08Windows 10
25 Production 25.105862015-11Xbox One
20 Production 20.102402015-07

Chrome (Google)
(Sources: Google Chrome Wikipedia)

Last release
Date (from)
Date (to)
40.+Production (45 2015-09): Removed support for NPAPI 78.0.3904.87 2015-072019-01
32.0BetaWebApps Home support on Android, Vibration API31-0-165
31.0ProductionWeb payments, Portable Native Client, security fixes31-0-1652013-11
25.0ProductionDesktop and Android versions are aligned
12.0Production3D hw acceleration. Better security12.0.7422011-07
11.0ProductionHTML5 Speech. New Icon11.0.6962011-04
10.0ProductionFaster JS10.0.6482011-03
9.0ProductionWebGL by default9.0.5972011-02
8.0ProductionChrome Instant, Cloud Printing8.0.5582010-12
7.0ProductionWebGL, HTML5 pgm. interface, late binding for SSL7.0.517.412010-10
6.0ProductionNew UI; native pdf; (63) Skins6.0.472.632010-08
5.0ProductionPerformance: JavaScript; native Flash Player5.0.3752010-07
4.0ProductionACID3 100/1004.1.2492010-01
3.0Production 3.0.1952009-10
2.0ProductionFaster 2.0.1722009-05
1.0ProductionFast, stable, ACID1&ACID2 100/100
Rapid Release (changes without user intervention) since the first release

Safari (Apple)
(Source: Apple site Wikipedia)

Last release
Date (from)
Date (to)
5.0ProductionExtentions; HTML5 features, faster Javascript. (5.1) Reading list, better privacy, resume facility5.1.72010-06
3.0ProductionMAC OS X, MS Windows3.2.32007
1.0ProductionMAC OS X 10.2, MAC OS X

Opera (Opera)

Last release
Date (from)
Date (to)
10ProductionACID3, Turbo (by compression), Visual tabs, web integration (mail, RSS, ...), spell checking, ...10.002009
9ProductionFast! ACID29.642006Also on Nintendo DSi, Wii (as Internet Channel)
1 1994

Lynx (Open Source)

Last release
Date (from)
Date (to)
2ProductionDeveloped at The University of Kansas. Small, fast, fully featured command line text browser.
Developlment is still active: 2.8.8 2012

Upgrade: my Lynx scripts are still working after 20 years without any difference...

Tor (Free Software)
(Sources: Wikipedia)

Last release
Date (from)
Date (last)
2ProductionBased on Firefox (7.5 2018-02): Firefox ESR 52.6.0 (8.0 2019-01): Firefox ESR 60.5.0 8.0.52019-01
ProductionTor project network
Tor (The Onion Router) Browser uses the TOR network to allow secure and anonymous browsing preserving users' privacy.

Other browsers: WorldWideWeb (1990) -> Nexus, Mosaic (1993) -> Netscape Navigator (1994) -> Mozilla

Last but not least: wget (1996), (1998)

Web Servers


Apache is the most widely used web server and... it's free software!
Many commercial products (eg. Oracle AS, IBM WebSphere) use Apache too.
(Source: Apache doc. Download Wikipedia)
Last release
Date (from)
Date (last)
2.4ProductionMPM support, per-module and per-directory LogLevel configuration, AllowOverrideList, better memory management 2.4.412012-022019-08Suggested
2.3BetaApache uses the odd releases (eg. 2.1, 2.3) as development... 2.3.162010-082011-12
2.2ProductionNew cache and proxy modules. Very stable and widely used 2.2.342006-072017-07Legacy
2ProductionUnix threads, IPv6, new API, improved support for non-Unix OS 2.0.652002-042013-07
1ProductionPowerfull web server based on NCSA httpd (0.6.2 1995-04). (0.8.8) new engine. Many modules (Perl, Python, PHP, rewrite engine, access, ...) 1.3.421995-122010-02
The first httpd server was the CERN httpd (1990), the NCSA httpd was the following and, since 1996, Apache is the most used one. The Apache license is very open. Many proprietary HTTP Servers contain an embedded Apache Server.


NGINX is a fast, small footprint, Open Source web server widely used as a reverse proxy and load balancer too.
NGINX company was founded on 2011 to provide support and Nginx Plus. F5 Networks acquired the company on 2019-03.
(Source: Apache doc. Download Wikipedia)
Last release
Date (from)
Date (last)
1Production Very fast and efficient since the beginning; uses asynchronous event-driven approach (instead of Apache threads).
(1.9.11 2016-02): dynamic module loading.


IIS is an other important Web Server but it's described later.

Application Servers


Apache Tomcat is a free, powerful Servlet/JSP engine.
(Sources: Apache Tomcat Wikipedia)
Last release
Date (from)
Date (to)
9 Production Servlet 4.0, JSP 2.3, EL 3.0, WebSocket 1.1; Java 8 and later 9.0.132018-01
8ProductionServlet 3.1, JSP 2.3, EL 3.0, WebSocket 1.1; Java 7 and later (8.5 2016-06): backported from Tomcat 9; support for: HTTPS/2, OpenSSL for JSSE 8.5.352014-06
7ProductionServlet 3.0, JSP 2.2, EL 2.2, WebSocket 1.1; Java 6 and later 7.0.922011-01
6 Archived Servlet 2.5, JSP 2.1; JDK 1.5; Java 5 and later 6.0.532006-122016-12
5.5 Archived Performance optimizations 5.5.362004-082012-10
5.0ArchivedServlet 2.4, JSP 2.0; Deployment and management (JMX) enhachements; JDK 1.4 5.0.3020022004-08
4ArchivedServlet 2.3, JSP 1.2, Catalina (container), Jasper (compiler); JDK 1.3; (4.1): Coyote connector 4.1.4020012009-06
3ArchivedServlet 2.2, JSP 1.1; JDK 1.1 3.3.219992004-03


JBoss is a free, powerful, pure java 100% EJB Container.
JBoss 4.x platforms contain an embedded Apache Tomcat 5.5 (Servlet 2.4, JSP 2.0).
The following table refers to the JBoss community version who merged into the RH product and had a fork with a new name: WildFly
(Source: WildFly WildFly download page Wikipedia Old JBoss AS download page )
Last release
Date (from)
Date (last)
WildFly(8 2014-10) up to 8.2.11. (9 2015-07) up to 9.0.2. (10 2016-02). (11 2017-10). ... (14 2018-08). 16.02014-102019-03
EAP 6.3Built from AS 7.4 6.3.02014-08
EAP 6.2Built from AS 7.3 6.2.02013-12
EAP 6.1Built from AS 7.2 6.1.02013-05
7.1Java EE 6 (Full Profile) 7.1.12012-02
7.0Smaller and faster startup than 6.0. JMS resources (eg. datasources) can not be defined in .ear .war. 7.0.22011-07
6.0Java EE 6 (Web Profile) 6.1.02010-12
5.0Java EE 5 (partial), new architecture: JBoss Microcontainer; (5.1) Java EE 5 (certified), Web Console, Web Beans Update, Farming Service (the return) 5.0.1 / 5.1.02008-12
4.0J2EE 1.4 4.0.5 / 4.2.32004-09
3.0 3.0.8 3.2.8.SP12002-05

On April 2006 JBoss had been acquired by Red Had. The following table refers to the JBoss Enterprise Application Platform (JBoss EAP) with precisely defined Support Policies and Supported Configurations (eg. EAP 6) by Red Hat.

(Source: Red Hat)

Last release
Date (from)
Date (to)
7.1 Production 7.1
7.0Production 7.0 upd. 082016-052020-05 (MS 2023)Suggested
6.4Production 6.4 upd. 162015-042016-06 (MS 2019)Suggested
6.3Production 6.3 upd. 032014-08(Last 2015-01)
6.2Production 6.2.42013-12(Last 2014-06)
6.1Production 6.1.12013-05(Last 2013-09)
6.0ProductionBased on JBoss AS 7.1.2. J2EE 6. Modular classloading, managed domains, Management API (REST+JSON), fast start/restart
Test integration with: Oracle 11g R1/R2 Standalone/RAC, 10g R2 Standalone; MySQL 5.1, 5.5; PostgreSQL 8.4, 9.1; DB2 9.7; ...
6.0.12012-06(Last 2012-12)
5.0ProductionJDK 1.6, J2EE 5 (Java Servlet 2.5, JSP 2.1, JSF 1.2, EJB 2.1/3.0, ...), SOAP 2.1, WSDL 1.1/2.0, JDBC 3.0; (5.1): J2EE 6
Certified with: Oracle 11g R1/R2 Standalone/RAC, 10g R2 Standalone; MySQL 5.0, 5.1; PostgreSQL 8.2, 8.3, 8.4, 9.1; PostgreSQL Plus AS 9.0; DB2 9.7; ...
2009-112013-11 (MS 2016)
4.3 CP10ProductionJDK 1.5/1.6
Certified with: Oracle 11g R2 Standalone/RAC, 10g R2 Standalone; MySQL 5.0, 5.1; PostgreSQL 8.2, 8.3, 8.4; DB2 9.1, 9.7; ...
4.32008-012011-01 (MS 2013)
4.2ProductionJDK 1.5 4.2 CP092007-062010-06 (MS 2012)
4UnsupportedJ2EE 1.4, EJB 3.0, clustering, failover, distributed deployment, distributed cache 4.0.42004-092007-10 (MS 2009)

Websphere Application Server

WebSphere is a large IBM web product family.
WebSphere Application Server is the... Application Server!
(Sources: Wiki IBM)
Last release
Date (from)
Date (to)
9.0 Production JSE 8, JEE 7.
8.5 Production JSE 6 and 7; Java EE 6. (8.5.5 on 2012-06): JSE 8
8ProductionJSE 6, Java EE 6, Servlet 3.0, JSP 2.2, EJB 3.1, JDBC 4.0
7ProductionJava EE 5, Servlet 2.5, JSP 2.1, EJB 3.0, JDBC 4.0
6ProductionJ2EE 1.4, Community Edition; (6.1): JDK 1.5 JSR 168 Portlets
5UnsupportedJ2EE 1.3; (5.1): JDK 1.4.2, Jython scripts
4UnsupportedJ2EE 1.2, several Editions 4.0.72001-082005-04
3UnsupportedJDK 1.2, J2EE 1.0 (with enhancements) 3.5.72000-082003-11
2UnsupportedJavaBean support
1UnsupportedA simple servlet engine 1998
IBM contributes also to Open Software with Apache Geronimo (1.0 JEE 5, 2.0 JEE 6).


WebLogic is the Oracle (formerly BEA) application server product.
Now it is core component of the Oracle Fusion Middleware.
(Source: Support Policy)
Last release
Date (from)
Date (to)
12c 12.2ProductionSee Oracle Fusion Middleware (2023 ES)
12cProductionSee Oracle Fusion Middleware. Full Java EE 6: Servlet 3.0, JAX-RS 1.1, Java Server Faces 2.1, EJB (2019 ES)
11gR1ProductionOracle Fusion Middleware WebLogic Server10.3.620092014 (2017 ES)
10Production10.320082014 (2017 ES)
9ProductionStable; (9.2 2006): WebLogic Portal, WebLogic Workshop 9.2.220062011 (2013 ES)
8.1ProductionJDK 1.4 8.1.6 SP620032009 (2011 ES)
7.0ProductionJDK 1.3 SP720022009 (2011 ES)
5UnsupportedHot deployment5.1
BEA acquired WebLogic on 1998. Oracle acquired BEA on 2008. The certification matrix can be found here.

IAS: Oracle Internet Application Server

Oracle Application Server again!
Last release
Date (from)
Date (to)
10.1.4ProductionPortal only WSRP 10.1.4Suggested
10g R3ProductionJ2EE only J2EE 1.4, EJB 3.0, ADF Struts 1.2, SOAP 1.1 and 1.2, Oblix 10.1.3BAD
10g R2ProductionVery stable release, Forms, Portlets struts, HA migration, larger HW support (eg. AIX)
10g SEProductionSEO version
10g R2ProductionStable release, JDK 1.5, Discoverer integration, farm topology 10.1.2
OAS 10gProductionOptimized web cache; ( OPatch
9iAS R2ProductionJDK 1.2, 1.3, 1.4 EJB 1.1, OC4J; (9.0.3): EJB 2.0
... see above table


IIS (Internet Information Server) is a web/application server
by Microsoft and is widely used on Windows OS.
(Sources: MS Support, Wikipedia)
Last release
Date (from)
Date (to)
10ProductionIncluded in Windows Server 2016 and Windows 10. HTTP/2 support. 2016-102027
8.5ProductionIncluded in Windows Server 2012 R2 and Windows 8.1. Dynamic Site Activation, Enhanced Logging, ... 2013-112023
8.0ProductionAvailable only in Windows Server 2012 and Windows 8. 2012-102023
7.5ProductionWindows Server 2008 R2, Windows 7 2009-102020
7.0ProductionWindows Server 2008, Windows Vista 2007-01
6.0ProductionWindows Server 2003; XML configuration 2003-05
5.1ProductionWindows XP Professional, XP Media Center Ed.; 32/64 bit 2001-12
5.0UnsupportedWindows 2000 2000-05
4.0UnsupportedWindows NT 4 Option Pack
3.0UnsupportedWindows NT 4 Service Pack 3; Active Server Pages (ASP) 1997-032000
2.0UnsupportedWindows NT 4 1996-101997
1.0UnsupportedWindows NT 3.51 add-on 1996-051996


Node.js is an Open Source environment for executing JavaScript code server-side.
Node.js uses an event-driven architecture for asynchronous I/O serving thousands of requests as a single thread: It's very fast!
(Sources: Releases Changelog (v14) LTS schedule)
LTS Nickname
Last release
Date (from)
Date (to)
v17 Pending 172021-102022-06
v16 Current V8 -->, Async hooks, DNS ordering 16.4.22021-062024-04
v15EOL 15.1.02020-102021-06
v14Active LTSFermium V8.1, Stable Diagnostic Report, experimental: Async Local Storage API, Web Assembly System Interface 14.17.32020-042023-04Suggested
v13EOL 13.14.02019-102020-06
v12MaintenanceErbium Import/export support, V8 7.4 engine, private class fileds, TLS 1.3 (TLS 1.0 and 1.1 disabled by default), ... 12.22.22019-042022-04
v11EOL 11.15.02018-102019-06
v10EOLDubnium (2018-10): LTS 10.23.02018-042021-04
v9EOL 9.11.22017-052018-06
v8EOLCarbon npm 5.0, v8 comp. 5.8 (2017-10): LTS 8.17.02017-052019-12
v7EOL 7.10.12016-102017-06
v6EOLBoron New Buffer constructors, v8 comp. 5.0. 6.14.42016-042019-04
v5EOL npm 3.3, v8 compiler 5.12.02015-102016-06
v4EOLArgon Convergence from io.js 3.3 fork and Node.js. 4.9.12015-092018-04
v0.12EOL 0.12.182015-022016-12
v0.10EOL 0.10.482013-032016-10
v0EOL Originally written by Ryan Dahl 0.8.282009-112014-07


Express is a minimalist web framework for Node.js
(Sources: Releases Changelog)
Last release
Date (from)
Date (last)
4Production API version 4, app.router(), removed Node 0.8 support 4.17.12014-042019-05
3Deprecated API version 3 3.21.22012-102015-07
2 Deprecated HTTPS support 2.5.92011-032012-04
1Obsolete Faster 1.0.82010-072011-03
0Obsolete 0.142010-012010-06


ENSEMBLE is the InterSystems application server product.
It uses the Cache' database and shares the version number since 2008.
Last release
Date (from)
Date (to)
2008ProdutionSee Cache' 2008Cache' 2008
2007ProductionX12, SSL; Additions: BPL, DTL, HL7, Utility Functions, Message Management 2007Cache' 2007
4ProductionEnanchements: BPL, Management Portal 2006Cache' 5.2.2
3.0ProductionFirst publicy available release; Monitoring Dashboard, Workflow management; HL7 (3.1) 3.12004Cache' 5.0.5 (5.0.16 for 3.1)
2UnsupportedMessage Engine, BPL, DTL 2.12003
1UnsupportedApplication Integration, SQL Gateway, Studio 2002


FORTE' was a successful 4GL development environment and Application Server.
It is not longer supported.
Last release
Date (from)
Date (to)
5.2OldSun ONE Unified Development Server Support Matrix (5.2.4): Support Matrix 5.2.420042009
3.5OldAcquired by SUN Support Matrix: SQL*Net (Oracle 7, 8 only) 30N02000
1Old 1994


J2EE or Java EE is a programming platform for developing
and running multitier architecture Java applications. J2EE includes
several API and features: JDBC, XML, RMI, JNDI, EJB, Servlet, Portlets, JSP, ...
Of course is based on the Java Language and on its development kit (JDK on J2SE).
(Source: Oracle J2EE Wikipedia)
Last release
Date (from)
Certified Application Servers
Java EE 8Servlet 4.0, JSP 2.3, EJB 3.2, JSF 2.3, JPA 2.2, WebSocket 1.1, JSON-P 1.1 1.82017-08 Full Profile: GlassFish 5, WildFly 14, IBM WebSphere Application Server, Red Hat JBoss Enterprise Application Platform 7.2
Web Profile: Full Profile: GlassFish 5, WildFly 14, IBM WebSphere Application Server, Red Hat JBoss Enterprise Application Platform 7.2
Java EE 7Servlet 3.1, JSP 2.3, EJB 3.2 lite, JSF 2.2, JPA 2.1, WebSocket 1.0, JSON-P 1.0 1.72013-05 Full Profile: GlassFish 4, WildFly 8, Tmax Jeus 8, Oracle Weblogic Server 12.2.1, IBM WebSphere Application Server and 9.x, Red Hat JBoss EAP 7.0, Cosminexus: Hitachi Application Server v10.0, InforSuite Application Server Enterprise Edition V10.0, NEC WebOTX Application Server V10.x, Fujitsu Interstage Application Server v12.0
Web Profile: GlassFish 4 Web Profile, WildFly 8 Web Profile, ...
Java EE 6JSR 316: Servlet 3.0, JSP 2.2, EJB 3.1 lite, JSF 2.0, JPA 2.0, Connector 1.6, Web Beans 1.0, JDBC 4.0 1.62009-12 Full Profile: GlassFish 3 (both CE and Oracle), WebLogic 12c, WebSphere AS v8, WebSphere CE v3, Geronimo 3.0, ...
Web Profile: JBoss 6.0, JBoss 7.0, TomEE, ...
Java EE 5JSR 244: EJB 3.0, JAXB 2.0, JavaServer Faces 1.0, JPA (Persistance API) 1.0 1.52006-05GlassFish v2, JBoss 5, JBoss EAP, Apache Geronimo 2, IBM WebSphere AS 7, Oracle WebLogic 10, Oracle OC4J 10, Oracle Application Server 11, ...
J2EE 1.4JSR 151: JSP 1.3, Servlet 2.4, JAXP 1.2, JDBC 3.0 1.42003-11JBoss 4, Geronimo 1, Oracle OAS 10g, IBM WebSphere AS, BEA WebLogic 9
J2EE 1.3JSR 58: JAAS, EJB 2.0, Servlets 2.3, JSP 1.2, enhanced XML and WebDAV, JDBC 2.1 1.32001-09
J2EE 1.2EJB 1.1, Servlets 2.2, JSP 1.1, JDBC 2.0 1.21999-12
JavaThe Java language! 1.01996


JSE or JRE are the Java language runtime enviroment while JDK is the Java development kit.
Starting with JDK 11 accessing the long time support Oracle JDK/Java SE will now [2019-01] require a commercial license,
Oracle OpenJDK can be used instead.
(Sources: Oracle Support Wikipedia Java Wikipedia Java versions )
Date (from)
Date (to)
ES (to)
Java SE 122019-03)2019-09 non-LTS. 19.3. Unicode 11.0.0.
Java SE 112018-092023-092026-09 18.9 LTS release. Epsilon garbage collectore, HTTP client, Flight recorder. Unicode 10.0.0. Deprecation: Nashorn. Desupport: Applet, Java Web Start
Java SE 102018-032018-09 18.3 non-LTS. Time-based release versioning, application class-data sharing, root certificates
Java SE 92017-092018-03 non-LTS. Better multigigabyte support, self-tuning, jshell. Deprecation: Applet
Java SE 82014-032017-092025-03 Lambda expressions (closures), Nashorn (JavaScript rutime)
End of Public Updates process: 2019-01 (Commercial Users), 2020-12 (Personal Users)
Java SE 72011-072015-042022-07 Autoupdate
Java SE 62006-122013-042018-12 JDBC 4.0, performance
JSE 5.02004-092009-102015-05 Compile-time type safety, enum, better multi-threading
JSE 1.42002-02 Assert
JSE 1.32000-00 HotSpot JVM, JNDI
JSE 1.21998-12 Swing in core classes
JDK 1.11997-02 JDBC, RMI, JIT compiler
JDK 1.01996-01

(Sources: OpenJDK JDK Project Wikipedia )

Date (from)
Date (to)
JDK 122019-03
JDK 112018-09
Java SE 122019-03JSR 386
Java SE 112018-09JSR 384
Java SE 102018-03JSR 383
Java SE 92017-09JSR 379
Java SE 82014-03JSR 337
Java SE 72011-07JSR 336


JInitiator or Jinit is the Oracle JSE used for SQL*Forms and in EBS.
Now is desupported (since 2010-01) and Java SE should be used instead.
(Sources: Wikipedia Desupport )
Date (from)
Date (to)
ES (to)
1.320022010-012013- on JDK 1.3, EBS desupport on 2009-07
1.119992008- on JDK 1.1

Content management systems (CMS)


Joomla! is a successful Open Source CMS written PHP as a fork of Mambo.
It is very feature rich and can be easly extended with thousands of Extensions (8K).
There are 5 different types of extensions: components, modules, plugins, templates, and languages. 
(Source: Joomla! Wikipedia)
Last release
Date (from)
Date (to)
4.0 Planned SEO tools, Hypermedia API, administrator template 4.0 RC3
3.10 Planned Joomla! 4 compatibility layer 3.10
3.9 Production Privacy Tool Suite 3.9.282018-10
3.8 Production New Routing System, PHP 7.2 Encryption Support, faster codebase 3.8.132017-092018-10
3.7 Production Custom Fields, Improved Workflow, Multilingual Associations Manager, Backend Menu Manager, improved update system, cache systems and package/extension management, Easier Extension Maintenance, and UX improvements 3.7.52017-042017-09
3.6 Production Joomla! Update improvments, new Sub Form Field function, Menu type ACL (3.6.2 2016-08): PHP 5.3 fix 3.6.52016-072017-04
3.5 Production PHP7 support, drag&drop images, system info 3.5.12016-032016-07
3.4ProductionCollapsible Sidebar, reCAPTCHA (3.4.5): security revision 3.4.82015-022015-12
3.3ProductionBetter password hashing, microdata 3.3.62014-042014-09
3.2ProductionContent Versioning 3.2.72013-092014-10
3.1ProductionContent tagging 3.1.62013-042013-12
3.0ProductionAdded PostgreSQL backend 3.0.42012-092013-05
2.5 (LTS)ProductionAdded SQL Server backend 2.5.282012-012014-12
1.7Production 1.7.52011-072012-02
1.6Production 1.6.62011-012011-08
1.5 (LTS)EOL 1.5.262008-012012-09
1.0EOLMySQL backend 1.0.152005-092009-07

Joomla!, like many other CMS, is very subject to attacks (eg. SQL injection, session exploit). For this reason is very important to upgrade to the latest version or, at least, to the last patch level of a supported version.
Upgrading Joomla! is generally easy. In 1.5 You have to migrate manually, since 1.6 You can use the One-click upgrade: 1.5 should migrate to 2.5; 1.6, 1.7 should one-click upgrade to 2.5; 2.5, 3.x should one-click upgrade to the latest version;


Drupal is a successful Open Source CMS written PHP.
Core functionalities can be extended with thousands of addons (30K) like Modules or Themes.
(Source: Drupal Wikipedia)
Last release
Date (from)
Date (last)
9.0Production 9.2.12015-112021-07Suggested
8.0Production Drupal core modules: CKEditor, Multilingual, Views UI, Configuration Manager, Media, ...; Twig theme engine; Security; Breakpoint media queries for responsive design 8.9.162015-112021-05Suggested Supported until 2021-11
7.0Production Entities, Overlay Admin Theme, better Database integration, SQLite support.
(7.31 2014-08). (7.32 2014-10): important security fix for CVE-2014-3704
7.812011-012021-06Suggested Supported until 2022-11
6.0Production 6.33 (2014-08). 6.382008-082016-02
5.0Production 5.232007-012010-08
4.0Production4.5 (2004-10). 4.6 (2005-04). 4.7 (2006-05). 4.7.112002-062008-01
3.0Production 2001-09
2.0Production 2001-03
1.0Production 2001-01

Minor release upgrades are always suggested (eg. Drupal 7 SQL injection fix) while major release updates require a big effort but can be delayed.


WordPress is a successful Open Source CMS written PHP.
The interface can be easly modified with Themes and functionalities can be easly extended with Plugins.
(Source: WordPress Wikipedia MySQL Versions Requirements )
Last release
Date (from)
Date (last)
5.7Esperanza SpaldingProduction 5.7.32021-032021-05
5.6Nina SimoneProduction 5.6.42020-122021-05
5.5Billy EckstineProduction 5.5.52020-082021-05
5.4Nat AdderleyProduction 5.4.62020-032021-05
5.3Rahsaan Roland KirkProductionBlock Editor Improvements, PHP 7.4 full support 5.3.82019-112021-05
5.2Jaco PastoriusProduction "White screen of death" better handling, Site Health enhancements, new Dashboard Icons, plugin compatibility checks 5.2.112019-052021-05
5.1Betty Carter ProductionSite Health, cron API 5.1.102019-022021-05
5.0Bebo ValdésProductionBlock-based new editor 5.0.132018-122021-05
4.9Billy TiptonProductionMore developer friendly. (4.9.6 2018-05): GDPR fixings 4.9.182017-112021-05
4.8Bill EvansProductionLink boundaries, widget updates 4.8.172017-062021-05
4.7Sarah VaughanProductionTwenty Seventeen, theme starter, video headers, custom CSS, PDF Preview, WP REST API 4.7.212016-122021-05
4.6Pepper AdamsProductionNative fonts, editor improvements, browser resource hints, faster multisite 4.6.212016-082021-05
4.5Coleman HawkinsProductionDevice Previewer 4.5.242016-042021-05
4.4Clifford BrownProductionTwenty Sixteen, Responsive images 4.4.252015-122021-05
4.3Billie HolidayProductionMenu management, site icons, improved password, editor shortcuts 4.3.262015-082021-05
4.2Bud PowellProductionBetter language support, Theme customizer, Plugin Screen 4.2.302015-042021-05
4.1Dinah WashingtonProductionTwenty Fifteen 4.1.332014-122021-05
4.0Benny GoodmanProductionLocalized installation 4.0.332014-092021-05
3.9Jimmy SmithProductionHTML5 markup, image management 3.9.342014-042021-05
3.8Charlie ParkerProductionTwenty Fourteen, new admin 3.8.362013-122021-05
3.7Count BasieProductionAutomatic background updates 3.7.362013-102021-05
3.xThelonious Monk, ...ProductionTwenty Ten default theme. (3.2): requires MySQL 5.0.15 or sup. 3.6.12010-062013-09
2.xDuke Ellington, ...ProductionRequires MySQL 3.23.23 or sup. (2.0.5): Ronan Boren (2.1): requires MySQL 4.0 or sup. (2.9): requires MySQL 4.1.2 or sup. 2.0.11
1.5Billy StrayhornProduction 1.5.22005-022005-08
1.2Charles Mingus ProductionSince 1.2.2 a database version fingerprint is available 1.2.22004-042004-03
1Miles DavisProduction(1.0.2): Art Blakey 1.0.22004-012004-03
0Pre-Production 0.722003-052003-10

It is always suggested to upgrade to the newest WordPress version. Since 2.7 one-click upgrade is available. Since 3.7 the automatic upgrade of minor and security fixes is available.


Moodle is a successful e-learning software written PHP.
(Source: Moodle Wikipedia)
Last release
Date (from)
Date (to)
4.0Planned 4.02021-11
3.11Production 3.112021-052022-11
3.10Production 3.10.42020-112022-05
3.9ProductionLTS. 3.9.72020-062023-05LTS
3.8Production 3.8.92019-112021-05
3.7Production Requires PHP 7.1 For all: Dynamic Forums, Personalized Messaging, new Classic Theme For teachers: Analytics 3.7.92019-052020-11
3.6Production For all: course overview, new messanging For teachers: group messanging, quiz improvements For admins: privacy enhancements 3.6.102018-122020-05
3.5ProductionLTS. For all: GDPR. For devel: All plugins must implement Privacy API, Boostrap v.4 3.5.182018-052021-05LTS
3.4Production For all: Better calendar management, Drag and drop calendar events, Private files storage display, Improved Global search, Easier activity navigation, Moodle from your Mobile! For teachers: More efficient user management, Mark activities as complete, Helpful file type selector, Tag database entries. For admins: Inspire Analytics in core (previously was a plugin), New filters for user tours, HTTPS conversion, OAuth2 services trusted email, Manage all Tokens, Site registration. 3.4.92017-112019-05
3.3Production For all: Better Office integration, Improved dashboard, Font Awesome, Emoji support. For teachers: Set a 'Grade by' reminder, Specify assignment file types, Collapse comments in assignments, Better activity completion management, Drag and drop media, 'Stealth' activities - available but not shown, More tag areas. For admins: OAuth2 authentication, Document file converters, Improved MySQL support (utf8mb4), New "Stealth" mode setting, Learning analytics plugin. 3.3.92016-122018-11
3.2Production For all: User-friendly messaging and alerts, improved Mobile app. For teachers: Better navigation and Easier editing with Boost, Media player improvements, Interactive report charts, Discussion locking, Assignment overrides, Workshop portfolio export, Select for students in Choice, Negative scores for rubrics. For admins: New customisable Boost theme, User tours, Competency frameworks import and export New media player plugins, LTI 2 compliance, Course end dates. 3.2.92016-122018-05
3.1ProductionLTS. For all: Bulk download files in a zipped folder, Search everywhere, Message others more efficiently, Easily link to forum posts. For teachers: Competencies, Assignment grading, Download selected assignments, Easily restore deleted content, Pinned forum discussions, Workshop enhancements, Share activities on your site, Tag course activities, Easier section editing, Search metalinked courses. For admins: Competency frameworks, Learning plan templates, Global search Assignment file conversion, Search the file system repository, Lesson default settings, Tagging enhancements. 3.1.182016-052019-05LTS
1.0EOL 1.0.9


Magento is the most famous ecommerce software. It's written in PHP with the Zend framework.
(Source: Release notes Download Wikipedia)
Last release
Date (from)
Date (last)
2.4 Production 2.4.2
2.3 Production Inventory management, PWA studio2.3.72018-122020-04
2.2 Production Upgraded technology stack2.2.112018-062019-12
2.1ProductionPayPal and management interfaces enhancements2.1.152016-062018-09
2.0Production2.0.182015-112018-02Requires MySQL 5.6 or later


Asterisk is a powerful Open Source PBX.
Asterisk was initially developed in 1999 by Mark Spencer of Digium; Digium was acquired by Sangoma in 2018.

(Sources: Asterisk GITHub Asterisk svn archives Versions Downloads Wikipedia)

Last release
Date (from)
Date (last)
Date (to)
18 LTSProductionSTIR/SHAKEN standard support, add/remove video durign the call, video conference bridge, configurable SIP logging 18.5.02020-102021-062024-10 (SecFix 2025)Suggested
17ProductionApplication event filtering, RTP/ICE, BlindTransfer, DUNDi, MWI 17.9.32019-102021-032020-10 (SecFix 2021)
16 LTSProductionREMB and NACK support for WebRTC, PJSIP AMI, Conference Text Messaging 16.19.02018-102021-062022-10 (SecFix 2023)Suggested
15ProductionStreams management (SFU: selective forwarding unit), simplified WebRTC support 15.7.42017-092019-092018-10 (SecFix 2019)
14ProductionPluggable API for DNS, media play on file and on HTTP/HTTPS, ARI: separation for channel creation and dial, list media playback 14.7.82016-092017-09 (SecFix 2018)
13 LTSProductionBased on 12 new architecture, enhanced REST Interface (ARI), new funtionalities in AMI, dialplan applications 13.38.22014-102021-022020-10 (SecFix 2021)
12ProductionNew architecture with an perfomant SIP channel driver built on pjsip Asterisk REST Interface. WebRTC: VP8 video codec support (Chrome), Opus codec support (audio) 12.8.22013-122014-12 (SecFix 2015)
11 LTSProductionCall Identifier Logging, Hangup Handlers, Pre-dial routines, WebRTC (initial support) 11.25.32012-102016-10 (SecFix 2017)
10Production High-performance conferencing application for 8-192kHz clients New Media negotiation framework supporting for an array of common sampling rates SKYPE's SILK codec Pass-ThroughSupport for the CELT low-latency audio codec at 32 and 48kHz Support for the SPEEX codec at 32kHz Receive-side jitter buffer capabilities CCSS Device State Information 10.12.42011-122013-12
1.8 LTSProduction Secure RTP, IPv6 Support, Connected Party Identification Support, Calendaring Integration, Channel Event Logging (CEL), Distributed Device State using Jabber/XMPP PubSub, Call Completion Supplementary Services support, Advice of Charge support
1.6Production SIP over TCP and TLS support, Distributed presence, T.38 FAX over SIP improvements
1.4 LTSProduction Generic Jitter Buffer, Asterisk Extension Language Version 2, T.38 (IP FAX), Jabber/Jingle/GoogleTalk compatibility, Increased language capabilities, Unified Messaging (central mailbox with voicemail, email, ...), AJAM (HTTP access to Asterisk Manager Interface (AMI)) 1.4.442006-122012-04
1.2EoLMany fixes. Improved performances and memory management 1.2.402005-112010-11
1.0First production release 1.0.122004-09
Asterisk patching is generally painless.
Asterisk upgrades are not very commons: You generally install and configure a new server!
Anyway the process is well documented.


xCALLY is a powerful Customer Care solution based on Asterisk produced by XeniaLAB. The xCALLY suite is a complete multi channel solution for Inbound, Outbound and Blended Contact Centers.

(Sources: xCALLY Motion v2   xCALLY Shuttle )

Last release
Date (from)
Date (last)
Motion v2 Production New dialer, security enhancements. (2.0.6): Incompatible change: license manager. (2.0.52 2018-04): Security Suite fully GDPR compliant. (2.0.71 2018-12): DialogFlow integration for chat channels (chatbot). (2.0.75 2019-02): important fixes: MOTV2-2525 (security). (2.0.76 2019-02): performance: Emptied sessions table. (2.0.78 2019-03): Japanese GUI, Amazon LEX support.
(2.1.0 2019-07): major change: user profiles (2.2.0 2019-07): videosupport option (2.3.0 2019-09): MS Dynamics CRM integration, Service Now integration (2.4.0 2019-12): new General Search, Screen Recording (2.5.0 2020-08): AI tools, WhatsApp connector (2.5.22 2021-03): mail performance improvements (upgrade require some time), removed API /api/notifications
Motion Production Multichannel: Voice, Chat, eMail 1.0.382016-122018-11
Shuttle v2ProductionAsynchronous architecture based on node.js and angular.js. Real Time dashboards and Business Intelligence section for reporting. On click upgrade. (2.4.74 2018-06): compatible with xCally Universal Bar/Motion Bar that implement GDPR compliant security updates 2.4.892014-102020-09
Shuttle v1ProductionNew HTML5 responsive supervisor interface. External SIP phone support. Full package installer for Linux CentOS available.
2.0ProductionFast and Distributed phone bar provisioning, Analytics and Call Center Reports improvements, Mobile CTI App2.0.1.112012-09
1.5ProductionEasy to use desktop interface, CTI phone bar, multiSkill and multiCampaign improvement, several timer management improvements1.5.212012-02
1.0ProductionFirst version, CTI support1.0.72010-11

Call-center operators generally use the xCALLY Phone Bar and a professional headset.

(Sources: Motion Phone Bar Shuttle Phone Bar )
Last release
Date (from)
Date (last)
MotionBAR 5.0 Production New SIP stack (5.1.1): SIP stack upgrade (5.1.22 2018-05): xCALLY Universal Bar GDPR compliant (5.1.31 2020-01): Screen Recording, TLS 1.2 support 5.1.312017-052020-01
MotionBAR 4.0 EOL
ShuttleBAR 3.0 Production
xCALLY release changes require reinstall.


Zabbix is a powerful Open Source monitoring tool for systems, applications, and networks. Zabbix is feature rich and suitable for very large enterprise environments. Agents are written in C Language, the web interface is written in PHP and Java Script. The database is generally MySQL but many others are supported.

(Source: Release Notes, Release Policy, Wikipedia)

Last release
Date (from)
Date (to)
5.4 Production Scheduled PDF reports, new trigger sintax, advanced data aggregation, multipage dashboards, ... 5.4.22021-52021-12
5.2 Production User roles, MQTT and Modbus support, HAproxy for HA, syntetic monitoring, insights, ... 5.2.72020-102021-07
5.0 LTS Production Advanced automated discovery, new go Agents, scalability, on Cloud/on Premises, new GUI, ITSM integration, new templates, ... 5.0.132020-052023-05 (LS 2025-05)Suggested
4.4 Production zabbix_agent2, container deploy, metric documentation, ITSM integration,... 4.4.92019-102020-03
4.2 Production TimescaleDB support 4.2.82019-042019-10
4.0 LTS Production Enhanced visualization, Time range selection, Tag management, Workflows, HTTP/HTTPS data collection, Kiosk mode, ... 4.0.322018-102021-10 (LS 2023-10)Suggested
3.4Production Collected data preprocessing, command execution througt Proxies, customizable Dashboard, parallel alerts, time period macros, problem acknowledgement notification 3.4.152017-082018-10
3.2ProductionEvent tags. 3.2.112016-092017-10
3.0 LTSProduction(2015-08) 2.5 First Alpha. (2015-09) 3.0 Alpha2. (2016-02) New Web Interface, forecasting, per-process monitoring, private maps 3.0.322016-022019-02 (LS 2021-02)Suggested
2.4ProductionMultiple filters for low level discovery, Advanced WEB monitoring, SNMP bulk requests, Host menu changes
Desupport: Node-based distribuited monitoring
2.4.82014-092016-01 (LS 2016-03)
2.2 LTSProductionvCenter and vSphere integration, Internal events, Macro processing, Performance improvements, API improvements, Discovery and auto-registration, Access to historical data for disabled hosts, Windows events collection
Desupport: Unknown events
2.2.232013-112017-08 (LS 2019-08)Suggested
2.0 LTSProductionSNMP traps, new default templates, WEB monitoring by proxies 2.0.212012-052015-05 (LS 2017-05)
1.8ProductionDB Cache, more efficient polling, flexible maintenance periods 1.8.222009-122014-12
1.6ProductionEscalations, IPv6, ZABBIX Proxy, Dashboard 1.6.42008-092013-09
1.4ProductionDistribuited monitoring, Installation Wizard, Auto-discovery, Web monitoring 1.4.72007-052011-05
1.1Production SNMP v3, New GUI, Localization, Templates1.1.72006-022011-02
1.0ProductionFirst version1.02004-032009-03
0.1AlphaAlpha but works fine!0.x20012004
Some Zabbix versions are labeled LTS indicating Long Term Support.

Zabbix upgrades must be planned. First versions upgrades had a long manual procedure.
Current version upgrades are generally smooth if You follow the standard procedure.
Since 2.2.0 database upgrades are automatic.
Agents are generally compatible for many releases (of course without the newest features)
while proxies must be in the same major release of the Zabbix server.


Grafana is a powerful Open Source analytics platform for metrics on Time Series DB.

(Source: Downloads, GitHub, Wikipedia)

Last release
Date (from)
Date (last)
8 Production Library panels, panel visualization (eg. Time Series instead of Graph! Beta: Bar, Node, State timeline, Histogram, ...), v8.0 alerts, plugin catalog, ... 8.0.62021-062021-07
7 Production Data transformations, new table panel, new IDE, ... (7.0.2): security fix (CVE-2020-13379). (7.2.0): date formats 7.5.102020-052021-07
6 Production New query workflow, Grafana Loki (log aggregation), new Gauge Panel, new Panel Editor UX. (6.1 2019-04): multi value data source variables for repeating panels, filtering on Prometheus, editors ownership. (6.1.6): security fix. (6.2.0): lazy loading, multi series gauge, bar gauge, ... (6.3.0): data link, graph gradients, new time picker, loki/Elasticsearch/InfluxDB log support, ... (6.3.4): security fix (CVE-2019-15043). (6.4.0): Log panel, data links improvements, go back. (6.6.0): stat panel, custom data units. (6.7.0): Google sheets datasource, OAuth integration, dashboard minimum refresh interval, query history. (6.7.4): security fix (CVE-2020-13379). 6.7.42019-022020-06
5Production New dashboard grid layout engine, Light theme, Dashboard and folder permissions, Teams, Datasource and Dashborad provisioning, persistent URLs. (5.1): Microsoft SQL Server datasource plugin. (5.2): Eleasticsearch alerting. (5.2.3): important security fix. (5.3): TV & Kiosk mode changes, Postgres graphical query builder, TimescaleDB support, Google Stackdriver datasource (5.4.0): Team preferences, highlighting weekdays and timespans in the graphs, MySQL Query Builder, for clause in Alerts, templating query editor for all datasources (5.4.5): security fix (CVE-2019-15043). 5.4.52018-032019-08
4Production Alerting, notifications, annotations. (4.1): shared tooltip, Elasticsearch 5.x support. (4.3): MySQL, PostgreSQL data source plugins. (4.6.4): important security fix 4.6.42016-122018-08
3Production Panel and APP Plugins, Playlists, grafana CLI 3.1.12016-052016-08
2Production (2.1): LDAP integration, InfluxDB 0.9 full support, KariosDB plugin (2.5): Mixed datasources, new time picker, invite users 2.6.02015-042015-12
1ProductionFirst public release. Grafana is the dashboard replacement for Graphite. 1.9.12014-012014-12
Upgrades are generally painless (eg. yum update grafana) even if a DB backup is recomended.


Eclipse is the most used IDE for Java programming and... it is Open Source!

Eclipse is used for many other languages too.
(Sources: Eclipse Wikipedia)
Last release
Date (from)
Date (to)
4.x Production 4.192018-092021-03 ... 2020-06: 4.16, ... 2021-06: 4.20
4.9 Old SimRel2018-09Simultaneous Release (every tree months)
4.8 Old Photon4.82018-06
4.7 Old Oxygen4.72017-06
4.6 Old Neon4.6.32016-06
4.5 Old Mars4.5.22015-06
4.4 Old Luna2014-06Java 8 support
4.3 Old Kepler2013-06
4.2 Old Juno2012-06
3.7 Old Indigo 2011-06
3.6 Old Helios 2010-06
3.5 Old Galileo 2009-06
3.4 Old Ganimede 2018-06
3.3 Old Europa 2007-06
3.2 Old Callisto 2006-06
3.1 Old 3.12005-06
3.0 Old 3.02004-06

Last but not least...

Programming Languages

SELECT programmingLanguage FROM theOnesIWorkedWith ORDER BY myPersonalPreference;

C1972Still my favourite one
Versions: C11 C99 C95 C90 C89 (ANSI C) K&R (Kernighan Ritchie on 1978)
SQL1977Database Query Language... and much more!
Versions: SQL/2016 SQL/2011 SQL/2008 SQL/2006 SQL/2003 SQL/1999 SQL/92 SQL/89 SQL/86
Bourne Shell1969On any Unix box
Python1991 Latest supported versions: 3.7.2 3.6.8 3.5.6 3.4.9 3.3.7 3.2.6 3.1.5 3.0.1 2.7.15 (up to 2020-01)
Unsupported: 2.6.9 2.5.4 2.4.4 2.3.5 2.2.3 2.1.3 2.0.1 1.6 1.5.2p2 1.4 1.3 1.2 1.0 0.9.9
PHP1998Great web scripting language.
Latest supported versions: 7.3.2 7.2.15 7.1.26 7.0 5.6.40 5.5 Unsupported: 5.4 5.3
Perl1986 Versions: 5.28
Objective-C1986Mac & iPhone programming
C#2000Microsoft OOL similar to Java
Java Script1997
Cobol1959Never dies!
Prolog1970Logical programming
Visual Basic1991
LISP1964Lambda calculus

"Your Servers Stink" Theory

Does Your server really stink?
Yes, it can be mathematically, physically and philosophically proved that both Your Hardware and Software need an upgrade. Let's see the theory behind this truth.

Does Your Hardware stinks?
If a CPU is 2 years old then current HW is twice faster (by Moore's law: performance increases exponentially over time). If You have read this document so far then you are worried by Your Hardware oldness. Applying the first Aristotle syllogism gives the following conclusion:
 Conclusion: Your Hardware is slow, You have to upgrade Your Hardware!

Does Your Software stinks?
The halting problem is undecidable over computer programs (by Turing's theorem). By Gödel's second incompleteness theorem no software con be proved to be correct. Applying the first Murphy law to both theorems gives the following conclusion:
 Conclusion: You Software is buggy and perhaps will hang, You have to upgrade Your Software!

These two thesis allow us to write the First Server Stinks Theorem (1SST):
 Your Server really stinks, You have to upgrade it!

By Hofstadter's law the upgrade task takes more than expected but applying the Pareto principle we see that upgrading the 20% of the systems solves the 80% of the problems. This allow us to write the Second Server Stinks Theorem (2SST):
 Your Server really stinks, You have to upgrade it now!

Using the Occam razor on both sentences give us the definitive form of the Third and Last Server Stinks Theorem (3SST):
 Your Server stinks, You must upgrade it!

Applying the Amdahl's law on the number of servers and system engineers an important corollary (YAAL: you're always late) of the previous theorem is:
 Your Servers stink, You must upgrade!

Recent researches applied the CAP Theorem on 3SST obtaining the Fouth Cloud and not Least Server Stinks Theorem (4CSST):
 Your Cloud stinks, You must upgrade!

Copyright Notice

This page has been prepared mainly with publicy available documents but it may contain copyrighted, reserved material and personal biased comments (eg. my Suggested / BAD suggestions).
I'm trying to keep this page updated and to fix any error... if You find something wrong or missing please send an email to meo.

Questa pagina e' stata preparata principalmente con documenti disponibili pubblicamente ma puo' contenere materiale con copyright, riservato ed opinioni personali (eg. i miei consigli: Suggested / BAD).
Cerco di mantenere sempre aggiornata questa pagina e di correggere ogni errore... se trovi qualcosa di sbagliato o mancante manda una email a meo.

This document is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.

Spero che il contenuto di questa pagina sia stato utile ma, se ci sono problemi, sono tutti c... tuoi.
Pardon: c... Vostri!

Titolo: Your Server stinks!
Livello: Esperto (4/5)
Data: 1 Aprile 1998 🤡 Fools Day
Versione: 1.0.33 - 14 Febbraio 2020 ❤️ San Valentino Special Edition
Aggiornamento: G - 15 Agosto 2020 🌞 Ferragosto Supplemental Update
Autore: mail [AT]